This is a course on spoken English.
Welcome to the most fascinating one-stop course on Spoken English, Personality Development and career counseling. Congratulations for choosing to be different in the summer holidays. At the outset, let us know what is expected from you and what we will give you in these 21 days of our association.
What is expected from you?
- Attend all the 21 days without fail and fully involve in the class
- Shed the fear of speaking English and Public speaking
- Speak English whether you know it or not.
- Listen to English bulletins whether you understand them or not
- Read an English newspaper whether you understand it or not
- Write a page in English daily
- Do homework regularly
- Participate actively in the Group Discussions, Interviews and Quizzes
What is our role in our association of 21 days?
- We will provide you a suitable environment to start speaking in English
- Inputs on grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation to the extent required for speaking basic English will be provided
- Remove your fear of speaking English in public once for all
- Facilitate to set your goal or sharpen or precise your goal
- Help you to make a plan for your goal realization
- Guidance and inputs to improve your personality
- Get you inputs and guidance on all competitive exams/career counseling from the successful personalities from the respective fields
- Prepare you to present yourself nicely before interview boards and other public fora
Chief aim of this course:
Youth Empowerment is the chief motto of this course by way of capacity building. Our aim is to build and improve your capacities in terms of attitude, soft skills, behavioral improvement, self-confidence, conduct in public and before interview boards.
All of us have learnt our “mother tongue” by just listening to parents, observing society and nature. We started speaking the language without knowing grammar, pronunciation and other related things. It was improved by trial and error method. Further refined by reading and writing as you grow up in the society. In this course, let us follow [the] same four techniques of learning, viz. Speaking, Listening, Writing and Reading with more emphasis on the first two.
You may be thinking that to do the above things, you must know full vocabulary of English, grammar and pronunciation. That is not factually correct. Start with what you know. Work on what you don’t know. Learn and improve every day. Your determination to succeed in life and live life with dignity would take care of the remaining things. If you keeps-on thinking to speak English, you will become an expert in thinking and if you start speaking English, you will become an expert in English.
|Part-1: EFFECTIVE AND POWERFUL LIVING|
|5||Understand the fallacy of other’s criticism|
|7||Goal setting and goal realization|
|8||Focus and up-dation is the key to success|
|11||Hard work is the key|
|12||Difficulties are to better you not to batter you|
|13||Cruelty is the order of the Nature|
|14||Learn from the nature and practice in life|
|15||Be a trend setter|
|18||Qualities of a winner and loser|
|19||Our expectations from you and our message|
|Part-2: SPOKEN ENGLISH|
|20||Introduce yourself & template for the same|
|21||Introducing in a stranger|
|22||Introduce your friend to another friend and
Template for describing persons, places and things
|23||Sharing of Family information|
|24||Sharing of Class information|
|25||Sharing of College information|
|26||Situations and template for spoken English|
|27||Phrases for certain situations/occasions|
|28||Expression of Feelings|
|29||Giving directions and useful phrases|
|30||Description of an object|
|31||Describing a place|
|32||Conversation between two farmers|
|33||Conversation about a railway station|
|34||Dialogue between two friends on Environmental pollution and its effects|
|35||Dialogue between two friends on water scarcity|
|36||Conversation between a shop keeper and a customer|
|37||Conversation in an interview|
|Part-3: ENGLISH GRAMMAR|
|39||Introduction to Parts of speech|
|42||Adjective and vocabulary related to adjectives|
|44.1||Auxiliary verbs- Be and its forms|
|44.2||Auxiliary verbs-Do and its forms|
|44.3||Auxiliary verbs- Have and its forms|
|45||Adverb and vocabulary related to adverbs|
|49||The SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE|
|49.1||Simple present tense-statements|
|49.2||Simple present tense-Negatives|
|49.3||Simple present tense- Yes or No Questions|
|49.4||Simple present tense-“Wh” questions|
|49.5.||Simple present tense conversation|
|50||The PAST TENSE|
|50.1||Simple Past tense-statements|
|50.2||Simple Past tense-Negatives|
|50.3||Simple Past tense- Yes or No Questions|
|50.4||Simple Past tense-“Wh” questions|
|51||The FUTURE TENSE|
|51.1||Future tense statements|
|52||Present Continuous Tense|
|52.1||Present Continuous Tense-statements|
|52.2||Present Continuous Tense-Negatives|
|52.3||Present Continuous Tense-Yes or No questions|
|52.4||Present Continuous Tense-Wh questions|
|53||PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE|
|53.1||Present perfect continuous tense-statements|
|53.2||Present perfect continuous tense-Negatives|
|53.3||Present perfect continuous tense-Yes or no questions|
|53.4||Present perfect continuous tense-“Wh” questions|
|54||Structurally similar vocabulary|
Part-1: Effective and Powerful living
- Positive thinking
“Keep your thoughts positive, because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive because your words become your behavior. Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes your habits. Keep your habits positive because your habits become your values. Keep your values positive because your values become your destiny”
— M.K. Gandhi.
Positive thinking plays a great role in your interpersonal relations and your growth and development. No person has control over the acts of God or Nature and no purpose would be served by being negative. Negative ideas drain your energy in un-productive and useless deeds. Further, negative ideas have power to make us poor performers, put us into boundless sorrow and have potential to destroy the human beings completely. All the known examples and history prove that negative ideas led to the destruction and deep melancholy. There is no trace of evidence in history to prove that negative thinking led to happiness or better performance. Hence, be positive in all your deeds and delete negative option from your option box.
The essence of positive thinking can be exemplified by a small story. A king and his minister went to forest for hunting. In their encounter with a tiger in the forest, king lost one of his fingers. When king was feeling bad for losing his finer, minister told him, “O, King! All is well. Whatever happens, it is for your good only”. The king got annoyed over the remarks of his Minister and thrown him into a well nearby and went off from there. On his way, he was caught by the tribals. They decided to sacrifice him for the Kali, their Goddess in the next morning.
Next day, early in the morning, the tribals took the king to the Goddess for sacrifice. The chief priest observed the king and found that the King was devoid of one of his fingers. He shouted that he is unfit for offering to Goddess as he is incomplete man and asked his people to release him. The king remembered words of wisdom of his minister. He went straight to the well to save his minister. He helped him to come out of the well and expressed his regret for the incident and narrated the things what happened to him. The minister said” “O, King! All is well. Whatever happens, it is for our good only”. The king frowned at minister and said, “Minister, I pushed you into the well, how that is good for you”. The minister smiled and replied, “The tribals did’t sacrifice your highness to the Goddess Kali as your majesty’s body is devoid of one of the fingers. Your highness knows that Goddess requires “poornahuthi” or complete sacrifice. If your highness had not pushed me into the well, I would have been perfect choice for their sacrifice to the Goddess. Hence, your highness action saved my life and action of the tiger saved you my Lord”. The king accepted the proposition of the Minister and there after followed the path of positive thinking.
All of you develop positive thinking for your good and for the good of the society. Positive thinking gives you positive energy which helps you crafting good interpersonal relations; give you peace of mind; helps you to achieve your targets early and makes you a leader. It creates a positive atmosphere for excelling in your field.
- Self confidence
Confidence plays an important role in your life. The works done with confidence scores several times better than the works done without it. It is to be noted that most of the in/valuable things in life come free of cost to us. Some of them are enumerated as under.
- Birth as a human being itself, not as a lower plant or animal
- Love of parents/friends/well wishers
- Oxygen which is our lifeline
- Self confidence
- Positive attitude
- Inclination to work hard.
- Innovative or out of the box thinking
- Common sense
As you may agree that any of the above things need/can’t be purchased. God has given us similar brains and opportunities to achieve whatever we want in our lives. But, you have to put efforts to realize what you want in life. The God will only assist those who are serious in their efforts and manage the above mentioned free things effectively. Self-confidence gives you several qualities which makes you special from others. The self-confidence gives you following qualities-accepting personal responsibility of your deeds; focus and calmness in your work; acting in spite of fears/apprehensions; Develop tolerance for others; Quick to praise and recognition of others contribution; Dignity of labour and respect for your job and standing for things which you believe
There is a small technique how to improve your self-confidence. Aim high and plan your work. Start executing the plan from simple to complex. Initially plan for small things which are easily achievable or in other words set achievable targets. The completion of these easy tasks prepares ground Work and makes you comfortable for doing further work. Keep doing things, makes you tuned to the work, and develop belief in your worth. Your good work would be appreciated or felt jealous by others and that further motivates/ inspires you towards your goal realization.
MS Dhoni is regarded as the best ever Indian skipper of India and nicknamed as “Mr. Cool”. He is known for chasing big scores in cricket. While batting, he plans only for the over and set a target of making 3 runs or 4 runs per over. This is very easy task, he achieves. Realization of these small targets in the initial and middle overs enhances his confidence and keeps his wicket intact. In final overs, he goes offensive to finish the task with renewed confidence.
Confidence gives calmness to focus on the job. Focus gives assured result. Result gives happiness and renews your confidence. Positive result brings praise from others. Praise motivates you further to speed up your work. Speed of the work makes you complete your task or work faster. Finishing your task or realizing your goal early makes you the leader in your society or field. Leading something gives you extreme happiness and makes you a better leader in due course. Hence confidence is the raw material for your happiness and fulfilling life.
3Ds play an important role in life of everybody. They are Desire, Determination and Dedication. Desire is the raw material for your growth/development. It is the starting point in anybody’s journey. Lot of time is taken in fixing the desire on one issue. The mind would be wavering here and there and fully volatile. But a time would come where you take a decision to go ahead with your desire. This is called “Determination”. It is the turning point in your success story. The challenge in the process is Dedication to the chosen path. Dedication is nothing but making focused efforts towards realizing your desire.
It must have been your desire to communicate well in English, develop the traits of Personality and obtain good career counseling. While joining this course, some of your friends/conditions would have discouraged you. But, your determination would have helped you to be here in the class room. Having owned up first 2Ds, it may not be difficult for you to exhibit dedication to shed your fear of speaking English here and start picking up good English for the better communication. If you dedicate your time in these 21 days, there is no doubt that you would become very good speaker in English, learn how to present and conduct yourself in the interviews. These 21 days would be very memorable days in your journey towards success and excellence in your chosen field.
Your burning desire to speak decent English and dedication towards it shall defeat your hesitation, fear and inertia in speaking English. You may know decent English also. The only problem you may have is inertia to speak English and fear of speaking in public. If this fear of unknown is not controlled, it may engulf your desire/s on this issue. Try to keep your desire very strong and therefore you will achieve what you are intended to learn.
“Purity, Patience and Perseverance are three key principles of success”
3Ps are the most essential human virtues to achieve anything in life. They explain the conditions and action points to achieve greater heights in your endeavors.
The first P stands for Purity. Here purity means keep your mind clean and full of positive energy. Your thoughts, heart and actions must be pure. Your mind shall be filled with only one aim which you want to achieve in life and all your vital organs such as heart, kidneys, lungs, muscles, blood etc. shall strive towards achieving your goal. If your goal is to become a Civil Servant, then your mind shall be filled with it only and all your time, energy and actions shall be in the direction of achieving the same. You shall never deviate from your goal till it is achieved.
The second P stands for “Patience”. Patience is the highest human virtue which is the weapon to realize your potential in any field. Unless, you work hard, you would not be able to do justice to the job. If you would like to pass civil service exam and wished to become District Collector [IAS] /Superintend of Police [IPS], Ambassador [IFS] etc., you must give a focused study of at least 10 hours a day. You shall have a patience of a gold miner. While mining the gold, excavating tons and tons of gold ore gives only few grams of gold. If you lack patience, you can’t focus on the work, if you would not focus on any project or work, it is futile to except any result from it. Thus patience plays a predominant role in ensuring the success in your area of interest.
The third P stands for “Perseverance” which means continued efforts for realizing your goal. In your endeavor, you may fail few occasions, but you should continue the work with patience. Failures are common in any effort, but analyze the reasons for the failure and correct the deficiencies and go ahead with your plan. It is said that human mind is very volatile. You remember that no success comes easy and if at all some success comes without hard work, you can’t retain it. Achieving your goal with hard work and great effort gives you a sense of real satisfaction and teaches you the values of life which are essential for happy living. It is pertinent to remember an old adage, “a lazy person would not start any work at all, a non-committal man may start the work, but keep it unfinished, but a committed person starts a work and never sleeps till the goal is reached”.
If you follow 3Ps in your life, there is nothing which you can’t achieve on this Earth.
- Understand the fallacy of other’s Criticism
It is said that people are best judges for others mistakes and best lawyers for their own. Many a time people criticize others for different reasons. People criticize out of jealousy, frustration, time-pass, to express displeasure on somebody and to make-believe that he or she is fairer/ efficient / cleaner/ courageous/ smarter/ intelligent/ stronger than the person being criticized. In rare cases, some people try to make constructive criticism, intending to improve your attributes/qualities.
Let us take few examples of criticisms from the recent history. All of us know Padmasri Ghantasala Ventakateswara Rao, the legendary and versatile singer and Music Director of Telugu Film industry. When he went for audition, it was told ”Your voice is unfit”. Had he accepted the criticism, you can imagine the loss to Telugu film industry. Similarly, when Amitabh Bhachchan, the legendary hero of Bollywood, went for audition, it was commented “have you ever seen your face in the mirror”? Had he accepted that comment, the Bollywood would have missed the one and only Big B. You may know the story of a father and son and their usage of donkey in their travel as wished by the villagers.
There would be many critics in your life. Even if you speak English, they may criticize and fear of criticism makes us artificially dumb. Most of the times, the critic himself forget the comment made by him, but you remember it for life. In the process the precious time will go away from you. The correct approach would be, you may listen to anybody, but take your own decision on any issue. What is correct for the critic may not be applicable for you at all. Hence, give a scant regard to the mindless and general criticism. If you are dancing to the tunes of somebody, they would keep on singing some nonsense. Sing your song and dance to your tunes.
If you keep speaking English whether right or wrong, you will become an expert in speaking English. The same person who is criticizing today will appreciate or get mesmerized on your English skills in due course. Have a determination to take criticism in a positive way and get energized for your good. But if somebody corrects your English, thank him or her and ask him or her to teach you further. Let us be a good learner.
- Aim High
To aim high is the call of our former President and missile man of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam towards the Youth. Let us understand the concept of aiming high. Identify your core competence and accordingly chose your goal. You may need to choose one among the following popular career options- Politics, Judiciary, Bureaucracy, Business or Industries, Professions like Engineers, Doctors, chartered Accountants , architects, teaching, etc.
If your aim is Politics, aim to become PM/CM which are highest political offices in India; if your path is Judiciary, aim to become a Judge of Supreme Court and High Courts; if your chosen road is bureaucracy, go for Civil Services; and so on. In simple words, aim for the top position in a particular category and work towards realizing your goal. As you know, nothing is impossible. Theoretically all human beings are born with same Intelligent Quotient [I.Q]. It is to be noted that only human beings are competing for the various positions and there are no superior aliens in the race. Your aim is realizable, if you master the rules of the game and play it correctly.
Let us take one example to explain the meaning and benefits of “Aiming high”. If your passion is to work as police, the possibilities for direct recruitments are at the levels of Constable[s], Sub-Inspector[s], SI, Deputy Superintendent of Police, DSP and Indian Police Service, IPS. The qualification for the post of constable is Intermediate, but now most of the aspirants are graduates only. The qualification for SI [Special recruitment by APPSC], DSP [Group-I] and IPS [Union Public Service Commission] is Graduation in any discipline. Let us take two graduates Prasad and Murthy became a SI and an IPS on 1.1.2001. Prasad got promotion as a CI in 2008, a DSP in 2016 and a Superintend of Police in 2028. Thus, Prasad would reach the initial recruitment stage of Murthy in 2028. Prasad by opting to become SI in 2001 may become SP or district police head in approximately 28 years of time. Whereas Murthy by opting for civil services became an IPS directly in 2001 and will reach to the stage of Addl. DGP in 2028. Thus Murthy gained almost 28 years at the starting of his career itself and overall gain is about 56 years. His work experience has been as a top boss rather than in the lower cadre in Police force. This is the benefit of aiming high and working hard at the starting of career.
- Goal setting and Goal realization
The goal setting is very important decision in your life. It is a process of fixing your future and therefore extreme care to be taken while doing so. You should clearly specify to yourself what you are going to be in future. You must have clarity on the end goal of yours and means to achieve it. Always set a practicable and actionable target and your goal shall not be fancy or on the basis of fantasy. It is to be remembered always that setting a goal is only a starting point of your travel on the path and your continuous journey involving your untiring efforts would land you on your cherished position.
In Hindu mythology, we have several examples describing the ways of achieving the goals set. One such example is the process given by King of Sri Lanka, Ravan. Ravan was a man of letters and regarded as an expert in Administration. Towards the end of the war in Sri Lanka, Ram sent his brother, Lakshman to learn art of administration and method of achieving goals from Ravan. On the directions of Lord Rama, Lakshman approached Ravan and requested him to teach him the essence of goal realization. The essence of Ravan’s lecture to Lakshman can be summarized as under
- When you make a plan to do something, do it before your mind changes
- Aim your target 10 times bigger than what it is and prepare yourself to achieve the inflated target set by you.
- Your growth shall not harm the society
If your target is to achieve civil services, you must know the syllabus, possess or develop good communication and writing skills, knowledge on various subjects, probing mind to know the things and passion for public service and interest to work with the people. Make a goal very early in the career, at least when you are in the first year of graduation and keep making efforts to make yourself tuned to the requirements of UPSC. You must be prepared fully before you go for coaching or sit for exclusive preparation. Prepare to face marathon rather than sprint or short running. If the plan doesn’t work, change the plan, but not the goal. Locks are never manufactured without a key. Similarly, God never gives problems without solutions. Only you need to have patience and perseverance to unlock them.
- Focus/concentration and up-dation is the key to Success
If at all there is one word in any language which is so powerful and make you best anywhere and in any field, that is “Focus” or “Concentration” in English, “drishti” in Sanskrit and “Ekhagratha” in Telgugu. The success and continued development is assured to you if you focus on your job and update the knowledge related to it. If you are committed to your job, the entire world/God would conspire to help you to reach your goal.
The best example or case point here is the story of Prince Arjun in Mahabharata. At young age, Arjun was like any other princes, but the only one difference; he had focus on the archery. That was the reason why he was able to see the eye of the bird hiding in a tree. This quality in Arjun was spotted by his guru, Drona. He was fond of Arjun’s concentration and treated him very special among his disciples. He taught him the special techniques in the archery.
One day Arjun was taking supper and suddenly lights were off. However, he finished his supper. A splash of idea entered his mind. He started practicing archery in darkness and become expert in releasing arrows with accuracy in darkness. While practicing archery with right hand, he got an idea of trying with left hand and finally became successful with left hand also. For this reason, Arjun has been also referred to as “Savyasaachi” or in simple words, ambidextrous. He could win Draupathi, just by his archery acumen.
The budding talent in Prince Arjun was spotted by God, Sri Krishna. He wanted to help him. Expecting request from Lord Agni to help him in consuming “Khandava Forest”, Lord Sri Krishna took Arjun to that area without taking any arms. There, on receiving request to help Agni from him, Krishna tactfully said, they were not carrying any arms to help him. The Agni gave the “Gandeevam” and inexhaustible quiver to Arjun and “Sudarshana chakra” to Lord Sri Krishna and requested them to help him in burning the Khandava forest. Thus, Lord Sri Krishna got Arjun, the Gandeevam, an unbreakable bow which has played a great role in the life of Arjun, especially in Mahabarata battle.
In spite of achieving great heights and achievements in his field, Arjun never lost his focus in his field and kept on updating his knowledge. He did great “tapas” or penance towards Lord Shiva and obtained the great “Pasupatastra” or the weapon of mass destruction and made himself unparallel to anybody of his times.
You may focus in your field and develop core competence to become unparallel and can live like a legend in your life.
- Realize yourself
The birth as a human being is the best anybody can have. Having taken birth as a human being, we have to realize the value and do the things in commensurate to its status. To realize this, listen to this, real time incident happened in Thailand. As you know, the main religion in Thailand is Buddhism.
The Buddhists in Thailand were taking a gigantic clay Buddha statue for procession. The procession was stopped due to rains. The statue was covered with the help of raised tent. Due to heavy rain, drops of water were trickled down on the statue. During the night time, the chief monk has found that a stream of light emanating from the tent. He went inside the tent and found that statue is the source of light. He went nearer, scratched a bit and found a golden statue under the clay. Then he realized that the original golden Buddha was covered by clay to disguise it as a clay statue and thereby prevent enemies from taking away the God’s statue earlier. The sudden discovery of gold statue of God made them happy. What we should learn from this?
In the Indian Yogic perspective, humans are considered as “Jivatma” or lower soul which came from Supreme Soul, “Paramatma” and therefore the human gets perfection first by realizing that he is God, “Aham Brahmhasmi”. This is like detection of Golden Buddha inside clay Buddha which is shining like a Sun which will melt away the darkness of ignorance.
A simple example is given for the purpose of clarity. Six-pack or eight packs is inherent in every man. Those who follow certain procedure and exercise the body would be able to realize the 6 or 8 pack. Others may not be able to achieve similar status. Most of the hard working villagers have these packs. Similarly, every human is being gold inside, one has to realize it.
It is scientifically estimated that an adult human being value is Rs.25 crores equal to value of 83 kg gold in monetary terms. In view of this, you shall aim high and do greater things in life. Otherwise, it would be demeaning your crores worth of body. For example if you own a house for Rs. 2 crores and if it fetches Rs.1000/- rent per month, what would you feel? Certainly, you feel disgusted. If Indian cricket team fails to make 250 runs in a first batting in a world cup match, you feel disgusted and even attack the houses of the batsmen responsible for the low score. Let us take the same sense of responsibility on us. Let us realize our value and try to aim high and achieve it with hard/smart work.
- Skill yourself
Nature is highly democratic. It treats all the living creatures with un-believable equality. It gives equal access to growth irrespective of your age, sex, status, religion etc. For example, the Sun, Moon, Air, Time etc. All the human beings have equal access to them. We know that some persons in spite of having money, material at their disposal failed to make any headway in life. At the same time, there are some persons who started from scratch and achieved celebrity status.
The tools or resources are important. But, the person’s skill in using the tools/ resources and extracting result is the much more important factor in life. A skilful person can alone extract melodious tunes from the hollowness of a flute. Similarly, your “take home” from the Sea or Ocean depends on your skill. A man who doesn’t know swimming can take home only the pebbles on the shore. A person, who knows swimming and can walk for a distance in the water, will be able to collect seaweeds which can be used as a vegetable. A skilled person, who can dive into the sea and stay underwater for a while, can bring pearls. A further skilled person who can dive into the sea and stay there for some time can bring corals, precious stones. A further skilled man who can dive into the deep ocean can bring gold and un-measurable treasure.
Your skill determines your altitude in the society. Your growth depends on whether you are non-skilled, semiskilled or well skilled. Arise! Acquire skill set! Achieve! Learn your position or status vis-a-vis your aims and its requirements. Acquire the skills required and achieve your aim with complete dedication. If you are able to use time, energy and other tools skillfully in your own route or field, the success is assured.
If you are skillful ad innovative, you can create wonders. Successful people use common things differently and skillfully. Read this excellent example of innovative thinking, using the deaf and dumb people skillfully for the good of all the stake holders. In New Delhi, one young unemployed youth saw some deaf person delivering a packet of food in a house. He got a brilliant idea and immediately recruited several deaf and dumb people for his newly started business of courier service. His business brilliance is that for serving a courier on somebody, a person is neither required to speak nor listen. The cost of the project was very less as he had to shell out very less salaries to his deaf and dumb employees. On the other hand, his physically challenged employees are very happy to stand on their own legs. Within a short span of time, the business grown into multimillion company. This is the story of 2011.
Skill is money and skill can be acquired by knowledge and practice. You are valued by your skill. Hence, give more importance to equip yourself with skills such as communication skills, expertise in your own field, managerial skills etc.
- Hard work is the Key
Success requires 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration or hard work. You should know the trick of working hard. You see most of the villagers and successful people never stay idle. They can’t live without doing any work. Even aged people at their eighties and nineties work. Thanks to the hard working habit. Hard work keeps your body and mind active and healthy and makes you enjoy life without any discomforts/diseases. And above all, give you a sense of pride and identity in the society. If you do smart work, coupling hard work with smart ideas, you will be heading the field where you are operating. Read this beautiful story on the essence and purpose of hard work which was learnt in a hard way.
There was a farmer in an Indian village. He had four sons. To his ill-luck, all of them were lazy and time-passers. They never went to school properly. They neither studied nor working in the field. They were shameless to live on their father’s hard work. The farmer told them several times to learn the art of working hard and come up in life. He used to repent “How these lazy people live if I die”? I want my sons to have a better quality life than me and live a dignified life in the society. They are not good at education. At least they should work to get their livelihood. How long I live on this Earth, to take care of them? I’m getting weak and aged”. Under these circumstances, the farmer’s sixth sense told, that he would not live longer. He called his four sons to his bed and told them. “My sons, I have kept a treasure box in our field which contains lot of gold and diamonds. But, I have lost the sight of the place where I have kept the box. All of you dig the land and share it equally. This is my last wish and you must fulfill”. Having said so, the farmer collapsed on his bed.
The four sons, after completing the last rites of their father, got motivated to get the treasure box and enjoy life. They didn’t want to engage labour for obvious reasons and started digging the land on their own. After strenuous hard work for 2 months, they found a wooden box in the land. They eagerly opened it to see gold and diamonds in it. To their surprise, they found a piece of paper saying “My dear sons, now you have learnt the art of working hard. Put the same labour in the land, you will get the gold”. They realized their mistake and followed their father’s advice and lived happily thereafter on their own industry. Hard work/smart work is the key to happy and contented life.
- Difficulties are to better you, not to batter you
The hard/unbearable situations test your ability to withstand the pressures of life and prepare you for solving complex problems in life. The difficulties, hard situations and scolding of parents /teachers/well-wishers are only to make you to go on the right path and live the life with dignity and happiness. To exemplify this, let us see how a wild animal, giraffe prepares its baby to the living in forest.
You know the height of the giraffe. It gives birth to its baby in a standing posture. The baby, just after falling from her mother’s back, is expected to stand within seconds. If it doesn’t, the mother gives a hard kick to make it 2 rounds in the air and the baby is expected to stand at least now. If it does, the mother starts the second round of kicking. This time the kick is stronger and makes the baby to make 3 rounds in the air and then it is expected to stand again on the ground. If this is done, the final kick is given by the mother giraffe with much more force. This time, just after falling on the ground, the baby is expected to run. If it doesn’t, kicking continues, till it runs.
The intention of the mother giraffe is not to punish the baby. It is a survival technique in the forest or grassland. Any laxity in the matter makes the baby prey to the waiting tigers, lions, wolves and even wild dogs. Thus, the kicks are required to prepare the baby for the ground realities from its hitherto safest place, the mother’s womb. The giraffe calf is precocious and starts running along with its mother immediately, once its inertia is removed by her mother’s kicks.
There is no doubt that giving kicks to baby appears to be very harsh, but that is done to save its precious life first and then make its life happy in the grassland. Similarly, all the difficulties those come across to you in your life are raw materials to make you stronger. And further, prepares you to face further difficulties as you progress in your life. Most of us want peaceful life without any ups and downs. In the angiogram or recordings of heart beat always have troughs and peaks. When angiogram becomes flat, the person ceases to exist. We expect lot of twists and turns in the life of a hero in a movie and such a movie only perform well at box office. The heroism grows proportionately to the difficulties he overcame, smartness he shows in solving the problems, difficult fights and dances etc. The latest trend is that hero has to entertain you fully, despite his problems in the story.
Your family and society expects similar actions from you. Don’t lose heart on the onset of the difficulties. Face them with self-confidence and understanding that difficult situations make you stronger and their purpose is to better you, not to batter you. You are the hero of your movie and it is in your hands to make it a hit movie or a failure one. If you want your movie to be a hit, prepare for working hard, solving difficult problems, facing failures and overcoming them with patience and confidence.
- Cruelty is the order of the Nature
Most of us take credit for our achievements and blame others for our failures. People blame society, parents, circumstances, poverty and other conditions for their failures. This can’t be untrue to some extent. Sometimes, the society exerts a great influence on the individuals and apparently appears to be very cruel and merciless. But, it equally provides protection, if the individual is Let us read an excellent story to exemplify this fact to you.
Once upon a time, a crocodile was entangled in a net laid by the hunter. It saw a boy passing by along the route and sought his help in letting it free from the net. The boy refused to do so and said to crocodile “You are a dangerous creature. If I let you free, you will kill me”. The crocodile feigned ignorance and said to boy “No little boy. I will be grateful to you if you let me free. I’m very a faithful animal. Please remove me from net and save my life. You will change your opinion after seeing me out of the net”. The boy somehow got convinced and felt pity on the crocodile and freed it from the shackles.
In a split of a second, the crocodile caught the leg of the boy. The boy screamed “This is unfair. You are a liar”. The crocodile coolly said”this is the order of the nature”. The boy didn’t believe himself. He did not agree for the statement made by the crocodile. Then, the crocodile said, “let us call a witness and check the veracity of my statement”. The boy agreed for the proposal and asked a bird on the tree “O bird, please tell me, is it that society is full of treachery, backstabbing and unfairness?” The bird on the tree replied “Yes. Absolutely right. Take my case. My investment in eggs/chicks is destroyed by snakes, monkeys and worst by treacherous human beings. This is the order of the nature”
The boy said to crocodile “the bird appears to be biased against humans, let us ask some other witness”. He asked a donkey passing by “O donkey, the crocodile is saying that the society is full of treachery, backstabbing and unfairness? Do you agree with it”. The donkey on the road replied “Yes. He is right. My entire life was spent in carrying the clothes for my boss and now I have become old and he left me out in the forest, just to become a prey to some hungry carnivore. This is the order of the nature”
The boy was paining under silence. He requested crocodile to go for one more witness. Then he saw a rabbit and asked it “O rabbit, please tell me whether the entire world is bad to live in?”. The rabbit replied “it is very difficult to say yes or no to this query. Let us sit and discuss to arrive at a plausible solution”. The crocodile frowned at the rabbit with suspicious looks and said “No rabbit. You are trying to help the boy to escape from me in the guise of a dialogue”. The rabbit told the crocodile “You are cowardice. Will it be possible for the boy to escape from your powerful tail? It is humanly impossible to escape from you”. The crocodile got elated by the lavish praise showered by the rabbit and left the boy and trying to sit for discussion. The rabbit shouted at the boy “Boy, escape. Run away from crocodile”. The boy did so. The crocodile roared “this is unfair rabbit. You have spoiled by food”. The rabbit said “this is the order of the nature”. The rabbit further looked at the boy and said “O boy! Go to village and bring people and first get the crocodile killed”. The crocodile cried “You treacherous rabbit. Go to hell out of here. This is doubly unfair”. The boy went to village, brought people and got the crocodile killed. He wanted to thank the rabbit which saved his life. He turned towards the rabbit and to his shock found that rabbit was being devoured by the dog which accompanied the villagers. The boy said loudly “this is the order of the nature”.
The society and circumstances tests your ability to withstand the pressure and pulls of the life. If you are able to sustain the pressures, control the temptations and go on the path of success, the same society accepts you as a leader and respects you. Stop blaming others for your state of affairs and start taking responsibility for your state of affairs. This gives a proper framework for taking correcting measures such as capacity building and realizing your goal. Capacity built-up starts once you stop blaming others and taking measures to overcome the weaknesses. Once you do this, the entire society, like rabbit and villages in the above story will help you in reaching your goal.
- Learn from the Nature and practice in life
Our Nature is our first teacher. The first lesson we can learn from nature is Regularity. All the agents of nature, the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Tides, follow a rhythmic regularity. We can be regular in doing things and shall never postpone. In the nature, the stronger ones flourish and the weaker ones would perish. There exists a struggle for existence. Hence, you should have a strong mind and personality to face and win over the challenges. Try to develop positive qualities such as self-confidence, competence, inclination to work, zeal to travel an extra-mile when others are fatigued. These qualities help you to reach a top stage and make you sustain there in that stage.
You can learn so much from the struggle of a seed. The tiny seed knows that in order to grow, it needed to be dropped in dirt, covered in darkness, and struggle to reach the light. The intention of the farmer or planter is to get a good crop and make livelihood or money out of it. The intention of the seed is to grow into a tree or plant and produce several seeds. The seed knows its ultimate as well as immediate duties. It germinates underground and gently starts pushing the earth above. The mud above the seed would not easily yield. The sapling keeps on putting pressure from the ground against the gravity and the pressure becomes so much, the ground has to leave a crack to allow seedling to access to surface and sunlight. Break in earth made by one seed/sapling loosen the soil and helps other saplings to come out of the earth easily.
As stated above, there is a convergence of ideas in the mind of a farmer as well as seed. That is the reason result is certain to happen. The ideas in your mind can be regarded as seed. In order to convert your desire or idea into reality, you have to make consistent efforts against all the odds. You may encounter different problems, face them with courage. Acquire skill set to solve problems on your path and continue the journey towards your goal. If you follow these things, you will reach your desired status or position in the society. Having achieved your goal, you can help other persons/peers in realizing their goals.
- Be a trend setter
There are two kinds of people, trend setters and trend followers. If you want to be trend follower, there is no competition and you can achieve that status without doing anything. But, if you want to be a trend setter, you are required to be different from others in dealing things. You shall be innovative. So many people watched apple falling from the tree and they just collected or observed it. Newton innovatively thought why it was falling and why it was not flying? That led to discovery of “gravity of earth”. The great youth icon and spiritual master of India, Vivekananda swami, by addressing the audience as “sisters and brothers of America” at congregation of world religions in America itself was an innovation and it had enthralled all the Americans. Similarly, Gandhiji’s weapons of Freedom movement “Ahimsa and Satyagraha” were proved very novel at that point of time. The example of recruiting deaf and dumb by a young entrepreneur at Delhi which is very novel idea made him a millionaire. [Given elsewhere in this book]
Hope that you must have understood the concept of trend setting. Now let us see the qualities of a trend setter. The ideas of trend setter shall be innovative; need to walk on a new path and face all the difficulties; pioneer in laying new road; resistance and resilient to criticism and discouragement; strong will power and perseverance till achieving the intended objective and brand building.
When you aim high, the trend followers may discourage you. Say for example, the idea of a young girl or a boy from a village aspiring to become civil servant such as IAS, IPS or IRS etc. may be a trend setting one in that village. The villagers may not be able to believe it. But, if you want to be a trend setter, go with your ideas, achieve the target and lay a new path of glory. The same villagers now follow the trend set by you and send their own son or daughter to follow your foot steps.
Whether your aim is Civil services, business or any of your chosen field, the first quality required is good communication skills. You should be proactive in getting this compulsory skill at the earliest. Then acquire skills required to implement your novel idea. If the glanced looks or non-serious criticism of somebody deter you to speak English, you can’t go on your path of success. If you continue your work, the same critic will hug you and request your help also. Hence, develop a quest for success in an innovative way. You will be Queen or King in your chosen path. Remember that good communication skills are a means in your success, but not success itself. Hence, keep your ultimate objective in mind and develop all skill-set to achieve your objective in a reasonable time.
- Fear Management
FEAR is defined as Fantasized Experiences Appearing Real. That means we fear on something which is non-existence now. If you have a fear of speaking English, the fear is within and really it is non-existing. As per several surveys on fear, the top most fears are Public speaking; death; Insecurity and Fear of rejection.
Public Speaking: When you are asked to speak first time on stage, you feel nervous. The reasons could be many- you never spoke public so far; fear of uncertain outcome of your speech, fear of rejection etc. Most of us always in the trap of looking good to people. We give less priority to feel good and be good to ourselves. You have to prioritize that you should feel good first, then being good to yourself and then try to look good to others. If you do this, superb speech would flow from your mouth. Don’t get caught up in the mire of looking good to people.
First, stand before a mirror and speak out what you want to say in the meeting, correct mistakes if any, practice if necessary and then go for the actual speaking. It is assured that your speech would be very good and otherwise also, it is a starting point and you have a right or opportunities to improve in due course. You know, practice makes man perfect.
Fear of death: Death is not an enemy of life and part and parcel of the nature’s cycle. It is like changing names or change of form of energy as described by law of Thermodynamics. As told in Gita by Lord Sri Krishna, death is a constant affair, you take birth as an infant, die as an infant and take birth as a boy; die as a boy and take birth as a youth and so on. Trust the kindness of God who has created milk before the child is born. Who knows? He must be created some better world for those who leaving this world. Further, we don’t have control over the death and then why to fear it. Work without fear and you will be happier and do the things in right way.
Insecurity: What is security in your view? When do you feel secure? The poor have problem of limited resources, but no fear of theft. The rich have insecurity of their money, assets and fear of taxation. Greatness lies in enjoying what you have and work on what you don’t have. Past is beyond your reach, present is yours and future is mystery. Work as if you are going to die tomorrow and learn as if you are going to live forever-MK Gandhi. Love the change, love the insecurity. Enjoy the path as a pedestrian, rider of by-cycle, motor bike, and owner of a car or a bigger car, Helicopter etc. If you are feeling insecure and not working, you will remain in-secured. But if work hard on your desires, you will surely get it.
Fear of rejection: Nobody can reject you unless you reject yourself or give away your self-respect. Saying no to your request is not a rejection. It is just saying “no” only. Rejection may be on non-palatable presentation of facts or wrong selection of target. The efficient sales man would sell a comb to a bald person. The successful entrepreneur knows the real target of his products. The bald person may not require a comb, but his family members do need it. Even otherwise, the success rate in marketing can never be 100%. Only a few people buy goods which are offered by sales man. Even then he would achieve his or her target. It is to be noted that the success rate of catching prey by a tiger is just 7%. That means it fails in 93% times. But, every failure strengthens it and it learns to enhance its success rate next time.
Fear lies in your mind, not in reality. The fear can be managed by 4Es. First, “experience” the fear of public speaking or any other fear. The second one is “explore” the fear and third one “enjoy” the fear. The last and the best one is “Educate” yourself on the fear. Once, you are educated, the fear would disappear from your mind as it is really not in existence.
- Time Management
Time is highly democratic. It gives equal space for each and every person on this Earth. The difference lies in its utilization. Some of the professionals, like lawyers and chartered Accountants charge their clients on an hourly basis. For example an advocate appearing in the Supreme Court charges lakhs of rupees per hour whether the case is heard or not. “Time is money, but money can’t buy time”. We can’t get back a second even with billions of rupees in hand. That is the value of time.
Time is regarded as a cunning thief who always steals your time without you are being aware of it. By the time you realize, it would be too late. Hence realize the value of time early in life. Try to set the goal also early in life and keep working on it during holidays and free time in academics. This approach saves lots of time and prepares you well for the target set.
Time is precious and valuable. But, life is invaluable. It is one way journey. You will never travel the same route again. Hence, try to optimize your time utilization towards your goal and other important things in life. Give your body physical exercise @ 45 minutes a day; have a sound sleep of 6 to 7 hours; 10 to 12 hours of efforts towards your main goal and remaining time spend on parents/friends/relatives etc. Support from family and friends save your time, provide congenial atmosphere for your time optimization and early realization of your goal.
There is one way of saving time which is a little bit difficult to follow, but works like a tonic if you can follow. This is taking out sometime in the academics to focus on your life ambition. If your ambition is to become a civil servant or a bank PO or some other Govt. post, you can go for coaching in the weekends or during summer holidays and dedicate 1 or 2 two hours daily without compromising your academics. This makes you settle very early in life. If your life ambition is settling in some business or profession, join the same line of business/profession as an employee for weekends or summer holidays, even for low or without salary to gain experience. This will go a long way in laying firm foundation for your future empire. Later, you can work 3 to 5 years as an employee in the same line of business, earn capital and expertise and then start your own business.
One of the most stupendous norms of time management is spending quality time in all spheres of your work. During study hours, focus on studies; while playing play happily; while spending time with parents, enjoy it fully; while eating, relish it; and so on. Never mix up things and waste time. Some people have tendency of wasting precious time on non-productive and useless deeds.
Listen to a beautiful short story. Two monks were returning to their monastery after attending a seminar on “Mind Management”. It was a rainy day. On their way, they found a girl with a beautiful dress hesitating to cross a water pit, created on the road, by the collections of rain water. The older monk got pity with her and lifted her off the pit and went on his way. The young monk maintained stony silence till they reach their monastery. Once they reached their destination, the younger monk has asked the older one, “Sir, we are monks and not supposed to touch ladies. Why did you lifted that girl and kept on the other side?”. The older monk smiled and said “My dear son, I left that girl there itself and you carried her to the monastery”.
Time is precious. Utilize it productive and quality use. Remember that TIME and TIDE wait for nobody whether you utilize or waste it. It is your duty to utilize them for your good.
- Qualities of a winner and a loser.
|1||Tons of confidence||Lack of confidence|
|2||Untiring and continuous efforts||Haphazard and lazy efforts|
|3||Use common sense profusely||Hardly uses common sense|
|4||Work with passion||Work for the sake of working|
|5||View problems as opportunities & get strengthened by overcoming them||View problems as obstacles & blame others as harbingers of his or her problems|
|6||Positive attitude. Willing to put an extra step always, even after strenuous work||Pessimistic attitude. Tries to complain of work and generally postpone things|
|7||Stay light and focused||Do too many un-productive things at a time|
|8||Work in combinations of fast/ medium/slow based on the situations in a continuous manner||Either too fast or too slow without any consistency|
|9||See target as only means||See target as the end in itself.|
|10||Gets maximum enjoyment in achieving the targets and by keeping the word||Want to enjoy life and lead it its space at the cost of commitments and postponement of targets|
Winner always ready to work an extra hour or run an extra mile when all are fatigued and stopped. The effort to put/run an extra hour or mile determines winning or losing and that is the important difference between a winner and a loser.
- Our expectation from you
- Speak English for 30 minutes every day or an average 15 hours in a month.
- Listen or watch English news 30 minutes every day or 15 hours in month.
- Read an English newspaper daily and read 2 English novels in a year
- Write one page of English on any topic of your choice in a week
- Try to inculcate good qualities and manage your personality wisely
- Having set your goal, start acquiring skills required for its realization
- See our help in further capacity building if required. In your endeavor, we are willing play a role like Drona or Lord Sri Krishna, as in the life of Prince Arjun.
Have a vision. Try to acquire skill-set required for your goal and vision. Work incrementally towards your goal. Let us take a sloka from Ramayan to exemplify the qualities of a successful person.
“Yasya thvethaani chathvaari vaanarendra yathaa thava |
Dhruthir Drushtir Mathir Daakshyam sa karmasu na seedathi” || – SUNDARA KANDA 1.198
While Lord Hanuma was flying over the ocean to Lanka, he killed a demoness called Simhika. As Simhika fell down dead, all the Seers, Devas and Gandharvas praised him for killing a mighty creature and told him “O Lord Hanuma! Now accomplish your task without hindrance .He who possess like you, the four qualities of DHRUTHI (courage), DRUSHTI (vision), MATHI (intelligence) and DAAKSHYAM (skills) never fail in his undertakings/endeavors”
The four qualities of a winner described above are elaborated as under:
- Dhruthi = Courage, Braveness, Firmness
- Drushti = Vision, Foresight
- Mathi = Intelligence, Intellect
- Daakshyam = Skills
A person who possesses the above four qualities will never fails in his/her endeavors /tasks. These four qualities should be exhibited by everybody in order to accomplish any task and become successful.
Wish you best of luck for your successful life. Once you settle in life, pay back something to society
Joint Commissioner of Income-Tax, Mumbai and
Course Designer and Chief Advisor and
PINAKA, A Society for People’s Empowerment, Tirupati.
Part-2: SPOKEN ENGLISH
- INTRODUCE YOURSELF
Hi, good morning everybody,
I would like to introduce myself. My name is —————————————- I am studying ————————— at ——————-. I was born and brought up at ————————. My father’s name is ———————————– . He is a ——————————– . My mother’s name is —————————— and she is a ————————–. I have one brother and one sister. His/ Her name is ————————-. He/She is in ——————————–school/college at ——————. I am ————— years old. My birthday falls on ————–. I’m good at Telugu, Hindi and English languages. I love English very much. I hate eve teasing, dowry system and child marriages. My role model is ————–. I like sweets/chocolates/ice-creams. My strength is discipline and honesty. My weakness is being short-tempered. I love my parents. I respect my teachers and elders. I follow our national leaders and I guide my juniors. My favorite hero is ————————- and heroine is ————————-. My best friend is —————————–. My hobbies are playing games, watching TV, reading magazines and singing songs. My life ambition is to become an IAS/IPS/IRS/architect/engineer. Thank you for patient hearing.
Templates or useful phrases for introducing oneself:
|Wishes: Good morning/good afternoon/ good evening/ hello/ hi
Respected sir and my dear friends…I am happy to/ I am delighted to/ I am glad to/ I am privileged to…
|Name: My name is……../ This is…/ I am…..|
|Family: I am the son of/ my father’s name is/ my father is Mr…/ He is a…./ My mother is a… I have a small family/micro family/mine is a small family/ I have a big family/joint family/mine is a joint family/my family consists of…./my family members are/my family includes…/ I am the youngest in my family/ I am the only son/ daughter…|
|Profession: I am doing/ I am studying/ I am pursuing/ I did…in the year/ I have done….recently/ I am a graduate/ prost graduate from../ I am working for/ I am working with/ I am doing a job/ I have been working as/ I have been working for/ since|
|Location: I am living/ I am residing/ I am staying/ I hail from/ I belong to/ I am a native of/ I come from….Which is famous for….|
|Hobbies: My hobby is/ my hobbies are/I love playing/ I am very fond of eating/I feel pleasure in drinking/in my leisure time I watch TV/ I play chess/ I read books|
|Habits: My habit is having tea twice a day/watching TV /playing cricket/meeting friends in the evening/cracking jokes/telling lies/teasing friends/browsing net|
|Achievements: I won a prize when I was in…/I could successfully complete my…/ I was the captain of my team when I was in…/ I could become…/ I could participate in../I was the representative of my class/college when I was in…/ I could get the appreciation from… for my outstanding performance in…|
|Life aim: I want to/ wish to/would like to become…/ I would like to see myself in the position of…/ I would like to achieve…/ I would like to be a…/ I would like to excel in the field of…/ I have a passion to become…./ I have a dream of achieving…|
|Favorite persons: My favorite hero is…/ I am the fan of…because…/my favorite heroine is…/my favorite villain is …/my favorite director…/my favorite politician../ My favorite singer is…/My favorite writer is…/ My favorite teacher is…. because…|
|Role model: My ideal person is…because…/ My role model is…because…/I adore the person Mr….because…/ I am the follower of…because|
|Favorite things: I like the movie…because…/ I like the book because…/ my favorite place is…because…/my favorite color is….because….|
|My nature : I am soft spoken/ I am punctual/ I am disciplined/ I am dedicated/ I am hard working/ I am sincere/ I am self-motivated/ I am honest/ I am assertive/ I am enthusiastic/ I am positive/ I am confident/ I am wise/ I am self-controlled/ I am flexible/ I am expressive|
|Strengths : I am good at…/I am an expert at…/I am the best at…/ I can communicate well / I can control my emotions/ I can handle the crises easily/ I can adopt myself to any new environment easily/ I can get along with people easily/ I can accept new challenges/ I can take any responsibility when required/ I can learn new things easily/ I can work alone or in a team at the same comfort|
|Me and my English: I studied in the school…/ I studied in the college…/ I tried to learn English but…/now I am able to ….but I am unable to…/ I want to develop/ I want to improve/I want to brush up/ I want to polish/ I want to be…/ I want to get command over… I would like to see myself as a….|
|Commitment: Now I am serious about/…/ I have decided to …/ I am committed to…/ I am going to…|
|Appeal: I need your cooperation/support/ encouragement/ request you all, please…/ I am expecting your support/ help/ cooperation|
|Why the Pinaka? I joined Pinaka/ I chose Pinaka/ I got admitted into Pinaka/ I have become a student of……./ I came to Pinaka/ I selected Pinaka/ I preferred Pinaka/ Now I am here before you all in this course because…|
|Gratitude: I sincerely thank you all for giving me this chance/listening to my speech/cooperating with me/encouraging me|
- Write some more information about yourself?
- Self Introduction to a Stranger
|Rohan||Hello, excuse me.|
|Pavani||Hi! What can I do for you?|
|Rohan||May I please know your name and native place?|
|Pavani||Yes, but why?|
|Rohan||I think we know each other.|
|Pavani||Is it so? I’m Pavani. I am pursuing B.Sc., in SG Degree College, Piler. I hail from Kallur. What about you? When did we meet earlier?|
|Rohan||My name is Rohan and I hail from Pulicherla. I am studying MA in SV University, Tirupati. I think we met before.|
|Pavani||I never know anybody from Pulicherla. Anyhow, nice meeting you.|
|Rohan||Glad/nice to meet you too.|
- Write a dialogue between a stranger and you?
- INTRODUCING A FRIEND TO ANOTHER FRIEND
|Sita||Hi Ram, how are you? Who is this?|
|Ram||Hello Sita, I’m fine. How are you? He is Mr. Rohith. He is my schoolmate and a close friend.|
|Sita||You told me about Rohith earlier. Why didn’t he join with you in academics after schooling?|
|Ram||Sita, he is very sharp. He got a seat in polytechnic after 10th..Thereafter, he finished his B.Tech and now is working for TCS, as a programmer.|
|Sita||Oh, great. What else?|
|Ram||Rohith is a very good singer. He used to get all prizes in singing. He was the only “blue-eyed boy” in our school.|
|Sita||What about his family?|
|Ram||His parents are in the village and engaged in farming. He partcipates in agricultural activities whenever he goes to his village. He took me several times to his village. I never forget the hospitality of his parents.|
|Sita||Nice to meet you Mr. Rohith. Nice to know so many good things about you. Bye|
|Ram and Rohith||Bye.|
- You introduce another friend to your friend?
A model introduction:
Hi good morning everybody,
It’s my pride and pleasure to speak about my best friend. His/Her name is —————————-. He/She was born and brought up at ——————————–. His/Her father’s name is —————————— and he is a farmer. His/Her mother’s name is ——————. She is a ——————- .He/ She is —— years old. His/Her birthday falls on —————— every year. He is doing first year B.Com in ———————college at ———————————-. He/she is good at Telugu, Hindi & English Languages. Though he is poor he is honest. He is kind and generous. He gives top most priority to our friendship. He likes sweets and fruits very much. He hates politics and corruption. His hobbies are playing games, listening to music and dancing. His role model is also ————–. His strength is honesty and discipline. His weakness is being over-confident. He is a polite student. He loves his family. He respects his teachers and elders. Following our national leaders, he guides his juniors. His life ambition is to become a civil servant/Judge/Politician. I am proud to be a friend of —————. Thank you.
- You introduce your best friend?
Template for describing different people, places and things
|Character||Active aggressive, ambitious, arrogant, assertive, creative, fickle, flaky, pleasant, good tempered, good natured, easy going, bad tempered, ill natured, friendly, sociable, out spoken, unfriendly, hostile, unsociable, independent, matured, week, reliable, trust worthy, honest, sensible, unpredictable, ambitious, hard-working, energetic, careless, lazy, disciplined, organized, careful, undisciplined, disorganized, attentive, self-confident, shy, timid, modest, humble, stubborn, touchy, sensitive, humorous, interesting, generous, unselfish, kind hearted, greedy, crazy, weird.|
|Food||Deep fried, juicy, bitter, salty, tasteless, endearing, tempting, tasty, delicious, yummy|
|Child||Adorable, lovely, bubbly, bonny, cute, darling, pretty, dainty, cute, cuddly, loveable, sweet, little, precious, dashing teensy|
|Place||Lovely, magnificent, endearing, enchanting, eye catching, picturesque, amazing, beautiful, colourful, crowded, hot, incredible, interesting, magnificent, modern, mysterious, natural, unique, tranquil, peaceful, traditional, harmonious, fresh, romantic, magical, mystical, picturesque, panoramic, uninterrupted, mountainous.|
|Hair||Short hair, medium length hair shoulder length hair, straight hair, wavy hair, long hair, black hair, gray hair, brown hair, silky hair, curly hair, smooth hair, blond hair, dark hair, red hair, white hair, thick hair, thin hair, bold, shiny hair, neatly combed hair, dull hair, tousled hair, dishevelled hair.|
|Ears eyes||Bat ear, button ears, cropped ears, dropped ears, blunt tipped ears, candle flamed ears, semi pricked ears, lobe ears, low set ears, tulip ears.
Dancing eyes, flashing eyes, glittering eyes, glistening eyes, hard eyes, rolling eyes, sparkling eyes, squinting eyes, twinkling eyes, dark eyes, brown eyes, blue eyes, green eyes, gray eyes, light blue eyes, dark gray eyes, grayish blue eyes, small eyes, big eyes, bright eyes, expressive eyes, long lashed eyes.
|Smile||Brittle, broad, cheesy, gummy, mirthless, monalisa, sly, thin, shy, wide, sincere, seductive, sarcastic, sneering, sweet, welcoming, gracious, dazzling, lovely, loving, devilish, timid, malicious, mischievous, reluctant, beautiful, bearing, glowing.|
|Nose lips||Nice nose, cute nose, small nose, big nose, pointing nose, flat nose, thin nose, thick nose, aquiline nose, pug nose, roman nose, flaring nose, hooded nose, delicate nose, muscular nose, broken nose.|
|Skin||Blooming, clear, freckled, glowing, lined, spotty, waxen, wrinkled, brown, green, red, white, grey, bloodless, bronzed, fair, florid, rosy, ruddy, tanned, high color.|
|Expressions||Absent, appealing, beatific, black, bug-eyed, curious, dark, deadpan, doleful, downcast, dreamy, expressionless, glazed, grave, haunted, meaningful, mischievous, mobile, monalisa, pained, pitying, pleading, quizzical, radiant, shamefaced, smiley, sullen, thoughtful, worried, wry|
|Male||Handsome, clean cut man, striking, arresting, appealing-sculptured, well built, rugged, ambitious, rough-excellent, silent, inviting, engaging, innocent-fearless, likable, selective, brave, catty, cheeky, bad tempered, big headed, arrogant, bossy|
|Female||Gorgeous, glamorous, amazing, awesome, effeminate, smart-attractive, homely, beautiful, melting, alluring, dazzling, gracious, seductive, romantic-charming, cherubic, haunting, irresistible, staggering, bewitching, curvaceous, mesmerizing, drop-dead, angelic, comely, radiant, ravishing, stunning, elegant|
|Dress||Elegant, glamorous, gorgeous, presentable, colourful, casual wear, formal wear, expensive clothes, cheap clothes, shabby clothes, handmade clothes, designer clothes readymade clothes, cotton clothes, linen clothes, silk clothes, synthetic clothes, nylon clothes, polyester clothes, denim clothes, leather clothes|
|Voice||Sweet, husky, melodious, mellifluous, appealing, breathy, brittle, croaky, dead, fruity, grating, high-pitched, horse, honeyed, low, modulated, monotonous, nasal, quavering, ringing, rough, silvery, sing song, smoky, strangled, strident, tight, long loss, wheezy, wobbly|
- SHARING OF FAMILY INFORMATION
|1||Hi, friends. I’m Giridhar and hail from Ananthapur. My father has been engaged in sheep rearing. Besides, being a home maker, she spends most of her time in agricultural activities. I love them. They are the most important persons in my life|
|2||My father is highly industrious and an expert in his job. He identifies all sheep in his herd by name. He also identifies all the lambs with their mothers. He knows several herbs and barks which are used in making medicine for the sheep. He is an expert in flute. The sheep follow him just by listening to his voice/flute.|
|3||My mother is very intelligent and acts as the Finance Minister of our house. She has never been to school, but still calculates most the arthimatics by herself. She knows the priorities of home and manages the limited income very judiciously.|
|4||I have two brothers and three sisters. All of them are married. All sisters are home makers. My brothers are serving in Central Reserve Police Force, CRPF. I love them. All of them have special love for me, as I’m the youngest in the family. They took care of me very well and they love me more than I love them.|
|5||We have five acres of land. We cultivate ground nut and coarse-cereals such as bajra and jower in our land. I know all the agricultural works. Whenever I go home, I work in the fields. I work faster than the labour.|
|6||My family is well respected in the village for our dignity and helping nature. My parents are always magnanimous in sharing the little things they have.|
|7||I’m working for a Multinational Company, MNC, and earning Rs.15 lakh per annum. Following the footsteps of my parents, I have been sharing ten percent of my earnings with the poor, especially towards education, marriage and extreme medical emergencies.|
|8||I’m happy to share my family information to this august gathering and thank you for your patient hearing. Thank you very much.|
- Make a presentation on your family.
- SHARING OF CLASS INFORMATION
|Rohan||Hi, Pavani! I’m very happy to see you in this college. How is the new college? Have you got any friends?|
|Pavani||Hi, Rohan! I’m also very happy to join the same college. I’ve taken B.Sc., I have a lot to share. First, being a year senior to me, you tell me something about your class and friends.|
|Rohan||There are 40 students in our class. Among them, I have three close friends. I’m friendly with others also.|
|Pavani||There are 39 students in my class. I have spoken to some of them. Surprisingly, one of them is my intermediate friend. I’m yet to make new friends.|
|Rohan||Who is taking Telugu language classes?|
|Pavani||Mrs. Sarvamangala. It appears that she focuses more on her make-up rather than teaching.|
|Rohan||Oh! She used to teach us. You are very sharp. You got the essence. You will not be benefitd from her teaching.|
|Pavani||Who is teaches Botany?|
|Rohan||Mr. Govinda Reddy. He is very good at Botany.|
|Pavani||Yah! He has taken a few classes to us. It was very ineresting.|
|Rohan||Who is your class repesentative?|
|Pavani||I think, nobody so far. What is the role of a Class Representative (CR)?|
|Rohan||The CR acts a bridge between and among the students and Lecturers/the Principal. He or she has to maintain the class in the absence of the lecturer. He represents the class as a whole. He helps the administration in organising certain events such as college day, freshers day, farewell day etc.|
|Pavani||Are you the CR of your class?|
|Rohan||Yes. How do you know it?|
|Pavani||It’s just a wild guess.|
|Rohan||You are very sharp. That’s why I like you. Bye. Catch you later.|
- Construct a dialogue between your friend and you about your class information? [Shared by both of you]
- SHARING OF COLLEGE INFORMATION
|Vikas||Hi, Vinay! What a pleasant surprise! What are doing?|
|Vinay||Hi, Vikas! Happy to see you here. I’m studying in SGS Arts College. What about you?|
|Vikas||I’m studying in SV Arts College. I’m in my final year B.Com.|
|Vinay||How is your college?|
|Vikas||There won’t be much difference between yours and mine. Both the colleges are managed by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, TTD. We have a morning prayer, Sri Venkateswara Suprabhatham. The fees is very nominal.|
|Vinay||Yah! We too have the same morning prayer. The fees is very negligible. We have very good faculty. What about your faculty?|
|Vikas||Faculty is very good in our college also. Strikes are very frequent in our college.|
|Vinay||Strikes are less in our college when compared to yours. But, the reasons for the strike are very funny.|
|Vikas||Is it so? Can you give an example?|
|Vinay||The reason for strike on last Friday was that college gate had been rusted the college administration never bothered to get it painted.|
|Vikas||Last Friday, Pawan Kalyan’s latest movie, “Sardar Gabbar Singh” was released. The students would have taken the repairs to gate as a ruse, to go for the movie.|
|Vinay||These kinds of strikes are common in our college also.|
|Vikas||Do you have a good library in your college?|
|Vinay||Yes. It is awsome. All kinds of books are available there. You will find books on proper subjects, fiction, literature, drama, theatre and so on. What about yours?|
|Vikas||We do have a very big library, located next to boys hostel. It also contains innumerable collection of books on different subjects.|
|Vinay||Who is your principal? And, how is he like?|
|Vikas||Our principal is Mr. Rajendra. He’s very kind and magnanimous. He moves very friendly with the students and inspire us to achieve great things in life. What about yours?|
|Vinay||Our principal is Mrs. Indira. She is extremely a good human being. She keeps a vigil on the attendance of the lecturers and guide them to teach the students in an effective way. She not only encourages students in sports, academics, cultural activities, but also motivates us for competitive examinations.|
|Vikas||Nice to know so many things about your college Vinay. It is time to leave. Bye.|
|Vinay||It is my pleasure Vikas to spend time with you. Bye..|
- Construct a dialogue between you and your friend about your college?
- Situations and Templates for spoken English:
Asking for an opinion
|What do you think about it?|
|What do you think?|
|What is your opinion?|
|What is your point of view?|
|What is your attitude to this problem?|
|Would you like to say something about it?|
Giving an opinion
|I think that we should consult a specialist.|
|In my opinion, we need a detailed plan of actions.|
|In my view, it’s a difficult task.|
|The way I see it, it might be difficult to realize at the moment.|
|As far as I know, it could be very expensive.|
|As far as I’m concerned, time is the biggest problem.|
|As for me, I’m not ready to speak to the boss about it.|
|This is a crazy idea, if you ask me.|
|In addition to that, we don’t have enough people for this work.|
|I’d like to add that we will need new equipment for this project.|
|What’s more, this office is too small for all of us.|
|Besides, there might be travel expenses.|
|Also, we will need extra cash for food and other daily expenses.|
Making a suggestion
|I suggest getting a bank loan.|
|Why don’t we get a bank loan?|
|How about using our out-of-town laboratory for this project?|
|We could rent some equipment instead of buying it.|
|You could publish an article about the project in a local newspaper.|
|Wouldn’t it be a good idea to start a fund-raising campaign?|
|Let’s ask Rajesh for help.|
Asking to explain
|I’m afraid I don’t understand.|
|Could you explain it, please?|
|Would you mind explaining it in detail?|
|What do you mean?|
|Why? Why not?|
Asking for clarification
|I’d like to know where you are planning to sell the product.|
|What do you mean by saying that we don’t have enough people?|
|Do you mean that we should hire someone to manage the project?|
|Could you be more specific, please?|
|What are you trying to say?|
Explaining and clarifying
|I mean that we will have to move to a different office and hire more people.|
|What I am trying to say is that we don’t have enough money for this project.|
|What I wanted to say was that we could use volunteers.|
|In other words, we are not ready yet.|
|You misunderstood. Let me explain.|
Asking for agreement
|Do you agree?|
|What do you think?|
|Right? Is that right?|
|Wouldn’t you agree with that? / Don’t you agree with that?|
|You agree, don’t you?|
|I agree. I agree with you on this. I agree with Alexander.|
|I agree completely. / I couldn’t agree more.|
|That’s true. / That’s right.|
|You are right.|
|Of course. / Certainly. / Sure.|
|I think so.|
|I suppose so.|
|That’s not exactly true.|
|I’m afraid I don’t see it that way.|
|I’m sorry, but it’s not quite right.|
|I’m afraid I disagree.|
|I’m afraid I can’t agree with that.|
|I don’t really agree with you on that.|
|To tell you the truth, I have a different opinion.|
|Basically, I understand what you mean, but I think your conclusions are wrong.|
|I see what you mean.|
|I see your point.|
|I got it.|
When you don’t know the answer
|I don’t know.|
|I really don’t know.|
|I’m afraid I couldn’t say.|
|I have no idea.|
|I wish I knew.|
|Don’t ask me.|
|I’m not quite sure about it.|
|Maybe, but I’m not sure.|
|I’m not sure that I agree with your argument.|
|I have to think about it.|
|I have mixed feelings about it.|
|Are you sure that this information is correct / accurate?|
|It can’t be true!|
|I can’t believe it.|
|I don’t believe it.|
|Are you serious?|
|You must be joking.|
|I think that it is a great idea.|
|It’s great! / That’s great! / Great!|
|It’s very good! / Very good!|
|It’s a good point.|
|You did a great job.|
|I don’t like this idea.|
|I’m against this plan.|
|I don’t think it will work.|
|It’s too expensive.|
|It will take too much time.|
|It’s too time-consuming.|
Asking to repeat
|I’m sorry, but could you repeat what you just said?|
|I’m afraid I haven’t heard what you said.|
|Could you repeat it, please?|
|Can you repeat it, please?|
|What did you say?|
|Sorry? / Beg your pardon?|
Interrupting the speaker
|I’m sorry to interrupt you, but could you repeat the address, please?|
|I’m sorry to interrupt, but there’s a telephone call for Mr. Green.|
|Forgive me for interrupting you, but I’d like to ask a question.|
|Excuse me for interrupting you, but I don’t think this information is relevant to the subject of our discussion.|
|I’m sorry for the interruption.|
- Phrases for Certain Situations/occasions:
|This material contains a short list of typical phrases used in certain situations. Phrases marked as “informal” may be used in informal situations.|
|Hello! How are you? – Fine, thank you. How are you?|
|Hello! How are you doing? – Fine, thanks. And you?|
|Hi! I’m glad to see you. – Hello! I’m glad to see you.|
|Hello! It’s nice to MEET you. – Hello! It’s nice to meet you.|
|Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening.|
|It was nice seeing you.|
|Keep in touch.|
|Take care now.|
|See you tomorrow.|
|Happy Ugadhi! – The same to you.|
|Happy New Year! – The same to you.|
|Have a nice holiday! – The same to you.|
|Have a nice holiday! – You too.|
|Happy birthday! – Thank you.|
|Happy birthday to you!|
|Many happy returns of the day!|
|Love and best wishes for a happy birthday!|
|Congratulations! Your new book is great!|
|Congratulations on your new book!|
|I’d like to congratulate you. Your test paper is the best in the class.|
|My congratulations! Your results are excellent.|
|Let me congratulate you on your excellent results.|
|Good luck to you!|
|Good luck with your new project!|
|I wish you luck in your ventures!|
|I wish you luck on your trip to the north. I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you.|
|I wish you luck and all the best.|
|I wish you the best of everything in your life.|
|I’m very sorry to hear about your nephew’s accident. Is there anything I can do to help?|
|Please accept my sincere sympathy in your great loss.|
|My deepest sympathy in your sorrow.|
Saying thank you
|Thanks. (less formal)|
|Thank you very much.|
|Thanks a lot. (less formal)|
|Thank you for your help.|
|I really appreciate it.|
|I really appreciate your help.|
|You’ve been a great help.|
Responding to thanks
|You are welcome.|
|Don’t mention it.|
|Any time. (informal)|
|That’s all right. / It’s all right.|
|That’s OK. / It’s OK.|
|I’m sorry I’m late.|
|I’m sorry I said it. I didn’t mean it.|
|Excuse me, please.|
|Please forgive me.|
|I’d like to apologize for losing your book. Please forgive me.|
Responses to apologies
|That’s all right. / It’s all right.|
|That’s OK. / It’s OK.|
|Don’t worry about it.|
|Don’t mention it.|
|Excuse me, (is this Maple Street?)|
|Excuse me, sir, (could you help me?)|
|Excuse me, madam, (where is the nearest post office?)|
|Excuse me, miss, (what time is it?)|
Asking to explain
|I’m afraid I don’t understand.|
|Could you explain it, please?|
|What does this word mean?|
|I’m afraid my English is not very good.|
|Could you explain what you just said, please?|
Saying that you understand
|I understand. / I understood.|
|I got it. (informal)|
|I see what you mean.|
|It’s clear now.|
Saying that you don’t know
|I don’t know.|
|I’m afraid I couldn’t say.|
|I have no idea.|
|I wish I knew.|
Asking to hurry
|Could you do it a little faster, please?|
|Please hurry up, or we’ll be late.|
|Come on, let’s go! (informal)|
|Come on! (informal)|
|Show some speed, will you? (slang)|
Asking to stop
|Please stop shouting. (stop talking, crying, etc.)|
|Stop it, please.|
|Will you please stop for a minute?|
|Wait! / Wait a minute.|
|That will do. / That will be enough. / That’s enough.|
Asking to stop because you don’t like what someone is doing
|Stop it right now!|
|That’s enough! / Enough is enough!|
|Stop bothering me!|
|Cut it out! (slang)|
|Oh, come off it! (slang) (Stop telling me tales!)|
|Watch out! / Look out!|
|Watch out for that bus!|
|Watch your step.|
|Watch those stairs.|
|Watch your tongue. / Watch your mouth. / Watch your language.|
|Careful! Behind you!|
|You should read this book.|
|You should see a doctor.|
|You’d better stay in bed for a couple of days.|
|If I were you, I’d go to Spain.|
Giving a compliment
|You look great. / You look wonderful.|
|That’s a great suit! / What a lovely suit!|
|I like your new hair style.|
|You have a very nice house.|
|You speak English very well.|
Responding to a compliment
|Thank you very much.|
|Thank you, you are very kind.|
|I would like to invite you to my birthday party (to dinner; to a restaurant; to a concert).|
|Would you like to go to a concert tomorrow?|
|Let’s go for a walk in the park.|
|How about a walk in the park?|
|Why don’t we go to a concert?|
Accepting an invitation
|Thank you for your invitation.|
|Thank you. I’d love to.|
|I’d like that very much.|
|That’s a great idea.|
Declining an invitation
|Thank you for the invitation, but I can’t.|
|I’m afraid I can’t. I have to study.|
|I’m sorry. I’m busy tonight (tomorrow; on Saturday).|
|I’d like to, but I’m busy.|
|I wish I could but I really can’t.|
|It’s not a bad idea, but maybe some other time.|
- Expression of Feelings:
|It’s great! That’s great!|
|It’s wonderful! That’s wonderful!|
|Great! Beautiful! Wonderful! Excellent! Terrific! (adjectives)|
|What a wonderful day!|
|I’m so happy!|
|I love it!|
|Oh, what a wonderful present!|
|That’s exactly what I wanted!|
|Just the thing!|
|It’s terrible! It’s awful!|
|Terrible! Awful! Horrible!|
|I hate it!|
|I can’t stand it!|
|It was the worst party (trip, food, day, etc.) in my whole life!|
|It doesn’t make any difference to me.|
|It doesn’t matter.|
|It’s all the same to me.|
|I don’t care.|
|I couldn’t care less.|
Approval, praise, admiration
|You did a great job!|
|It’s great! It’s wonderful!|
|That’s great! I’m so proud of you.|
|You did it!|
|That’s my boy! That’s my girl!|
Complaining, annoyance, disapproval
|I wish you wouldn’t take my books without permission.|
|I thought I told you not to smoke in this room.|
|I thought I asked you to be here by nine o’clock.|
|How many times do I have to tell you to turn off the light when you leave?|
|Oh, how could you?|
|You should be ashamed of yourself.|
|Shame on you!|
When someone is annoying you
|Leave me alone!|
|Mind your own business, will you?|
|Stop bothering me!|
|Lay off! (slang)|
|Get lost! (slang)|
Annoyance, resentment, anger
|Why on earth should I do it?|
|Who (the hell) do you think you are?|
|How dare you!|
|For goodness’ sake! For heaven’s sake!|
|Good gracious! My goodness!|
|Oh God! Oh my!|
|Damn! Damn it! Oh hell!|
|That’s it! That does it!|
Asking not to get angry
|Don’t get upset.|
|Take it easy.|
|Don’t get mad!|
|Cool it. (slang)|
Asking not to worry
|Don’t worry about it.|
|Don’t worry. Everything will be all right.|
|Take it easy.|
Disappointment, complaining about life
|I feel so disappointed.|
|Just my luck.|
|What a day! What a life!|
|Life is hard. Life is unfair.|
|That’s life. What can you do?|
|Oh well. That’s the way it goes.|
|So much for (my hopes of getting a promotion at work).|
|I’m sorry to hear that.|
|I know how you feel.|
|That’s too bad.|
|Bad luck. / Hard luck.|
|Everything will be all right!|
|It’s not the end of the world!|
|Don’t give up. Hang in there.|
|Don’t worry. You’ll be all right.|
|Is that so?|
|I’m really surprised (that he said such a thing).|
|No kidding? Are you serious?|
|You must be joking! You’re kidding!|
|I can’t believe it.|
|It can’t be true!|
|I’m not (quite) sure about it.|
|Maybe, but I am not sure.|
|I’m not sure. I’m not so sure.|
|Well, I don’t know yet. I have to think about it.|
|I have mixed feelings about it.|
|I doubt it.|
|Ouch! It hurts!|
|Oh! I’ve burned my finger!|
|My left foot hurts.|
|I have a terrible headache.|
|I have a pain in my chest.|
Interjections expressing emotions
|Interjections expressing emotions are used in informal speech in informal situations. Several of such interjections have been used in the examples above.|
- GIVING DIRECTIONS.
A: How do I get to post office? / What is the best way to Bus-station? / Where is Fair Price Shop? / Is there any bank nearby? / How do I find Ajanta theatre? / Can you help me in finding Police station? / How far is the coffee house from here?
Go straight until you reach/ turn left /turn right/ now you are in ____ street / go along the road / cross the road / take the first/ 2nd /3rd lane/ opposite to it is ___/ next to it ___/ between / at the end of the street / at the corner / in front of it / traffic lights / cross roads / junction / Bank / ATM/ School / College/ __ shop/ Medical store / Super market / Main road.
B: Now you are at the bus stand. You go straight to the main road. You take left. Go along the road. You can find Priyadarsini College at right. Again you go straight until you reach Panchayat Office. There you can find branch road. You take right and go along the road you can reach Railway crossings. You go straight and very nearby you can find Andhra Bank, Kakatiya School and SBI ATM at right and then cross roads. You turn left and go along the road. Now you are in Prakasam Street. At the end of the road you can find old bus stand. You take right turn. At the right corner you can find a Medical shop and MPDO office at left. You go straight for a while you can find MRO office at right and next to it Sub-Registrar office. Adjacent to it there is a Police Station.
B: Could you please tell me how can I reach Post Office?
- You show the directions to the required place?
- DESCRIPTION OF AN OBJECT
|Chandra||Hi Murali, how are you? You are in a very good mood, what happened?|
|Murali||Hi Chandra, I’m fine. I’m delighted to get a mobile of my choice.|
|Chandra||Oh! It’s very nice. What’s its brand and features?|
|Murali||This is Asus Mobile with 16 GB in-built capacity with an extra facility of a memory card. It costs about Rs.20,000. It’s black in colour and looks very beautiful.|
|Chandra||Really very good mobile Murali. What else are its features?|
|Murali||It has Intel core. Its screen is very big. It has a camera with 16 megapixel. The picture quality is awesome. Besides, the net speed is very fast and thus helps in fast delivery of the messages.|
|Chandra||What about other features?|
|Murali||I have copied 10 GB of my favourite songs and poems into my mobile. The sound quality is excellent. In my free time, I listen to the songs and poems. I also get All India Radio (AIR) in my mobile.|
|Chandra||Where did you buy this?|
|Murali||My father has gifted me this mobile. I have sent my 1st whatsapp message to my dad. I use whatsapp to send songs, videos and images to friends and relatives.|
|Chandra||It is very interesting to know about your mobile. Anything else?|
|Murali||It is very compact and beautiful. I’m lucky to own such a mobile.|
|Chandra||Yes Murali. It has interesting and useful features. I want to use the Skype to speak to friends and relatives. For this purpose, I will buy similar mobile. Thanks for sharing the information.|
- Construct a dialogue between your friend and you describing about any article you like?
- DESCRIBING A PLACE
|1||My favourite place is Tirupati/Tirumala in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the western side of Sheshachala range of Eastern Ghats. It is a Municipal Corporation. Due to its tropical location, it is relatively hot.|
|2||It is the abode of Lord Sri Venkateswara which is visited by thousands of people every day. The daily collections of the Hundi is about Rs. 3 crores|
|3||In Tirumala, you’ll find a serene forests with wide variety of wildlife, flowers and birds. One can reach Tirupati by road, by air and by rail. It is located just 120 km north-west of Chennai and just 130 km south-east of Banglore. It is located at a distance of 520 km from Hyderabad.|
|4||From Tirupati, you can reach Tirumala, by road as well as on foot. The pedestrians can use the two routes to reach Tirumala, one, from Srinivasamangapuram, starting from Srivari mettu and another, from Alipiri. Reaching Tirumala on foot is a wonderful experience.|
|5||Tirupati is considered one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage sites because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple besides other historical temples, and is referred to as the “Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh”.|
|6||In Tirupati, several educational institutions are located, imparting education to several thousands of students in different disciplines. The famous colleges located in Tripathi are SV Engineering college, SV Medical Colleges, SV University, SV and SGS Arts Colleges etc.|
|7||The famous temples in Tripathi are Sri Kodandarama Swamy temple and Govindaraja Swamy temple. Hindus treat Tirupati as a sacred place and religious centre for their spiritual upliftment. The Tirupati laddoo is is very famous and has geographical indication, GI tag.|
|8||In Tirupati, you can found very good grenery and excellent parks. Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park hosts several wild animals such as giraffe, elephants, tigers, lions, bears, different kinds of birds and other animals.|
|9||There is a Science Centre in Tirupati. It demonstrates several scientific experiments and display several scientific objects.|
|10||In just few Kilometers from Tirupati, you will find an ancient fort in Chandragiri. The famous Monarch, Sri Krishna Devaraya spend his initial years in this fort.|
- Describe a place of your choice in your own words.
- Describe your village in 100 words.
- Conversation between two farmers
|Jayaram||Excuse me sir! Would you please tell me the way to the Agricultural Office?|
|Veeraiah||Why not? Please follow me. I’m also going there.|
|Jayaram||May I know your nice name sir?|
|Veeraiah||Sure. I’m Veeraiah from Piler. What about you?|
|Jayaram||Oh! Nice. I’m Jayaram from Pulicherla. Do you have any work at the agricultural office?|
|Veeraiah||Yes sir. I would like to meet the agricultural officer and find a possible solution for the crop affected. What your purpose of coming to the agricultural office?|
|Jayaram||I have also come for the same.|
|Veeraiah||What crops have you grown? What happened to them? What crops have you cultivated? What happened to them?|
|Jayaram||I have cultivated paddy and sugar cane. The leaves of paddy look burnt as if they are set ablaze. The seedlings look wilted and leaves are going yellow and dry.|
|Veeraiah||What a coincidence? I can see the similarity between yours and mine.|
|Jayaram||Have you found any solution for this?|
|Veeraiah||No. I have brought some affected paddy. Let us show this to Agricultural Officer (AO) and seek his advice.|
|[Both of them reached Agricultural office and met AO]|
|AO||Tell me. What can I do for you?|
|Veeraiah||Sir, You may kindly look at this disease affected paddy and advice us the solution for the problem.|
|AO||Your paddy is affected by bacterial disease called “Bacterial blight”. Just spray this chemical by mixing in water @ 1:10.|
Vocabulary related to Agriculture
|Acres, Advances, Affect, Agrarian, Agriculture, Animals, Arable, Arid; Bacterial blight, Bison, Brawn, Breed, Bureau, Business; Capital, Cattle, Cereals, Coarse Cereals, Chemicals, chicken, Climate, Conditions, Conservation, Consumers, Cooperative, Cotton, Cows, Crops [Paddy, Sugar Cane, Red-gram, Green gram etc], Cultivation, Culture; Dairy, Dependence, Development, Disease, Diversity, Domestication, Drainage, Drought; Equipment, Erosion, Experiment, Extensive; Farm, Farm distress, Farmers, Feed, Fertile, Fertilize, Fiber, Food, Forage, Fruit trees, Fungicide, Fungus, Fur, Furrow; Gather, Graze, Ground, Grower; Harmful, Harness, Harvest, Hectare, Help, Holdings, Homestead, Horses, Husbandry, Hybrid; Ideal, Impoverished, Improvement, Industry, Insects, Insecticides, Intensive, Irrigation, Implements; Labor, Laborer, Land, Lease, Livestock, loan; Machinery, , Manure, Market price, Materials, Migrants, Milk, Moisture, Money; Nature, Nitrogen, No-till, Nutrient; Orchards, Organic, Organization, Output, Oxen; Pastoral, Pesticide, Pests, Plantation, Planter, Planting, Plough, Poultry, Produce, Productive, Products, Pulses [Red gram, Green gram, black gram etc]; Raise, Reap, Red-rot disease, Reform, Region, Regional, Resistant, Rotation; Sales, Seedlings, Sharecropper, Sheep, Skin, Slash-and-burn, Soil, Sowing, Specialize, Spurt, Sterilize, Strength, Subsistence, Sugar cane, Sunshine, Supply, Surplus; Techniques, Tenant farmer, Terrain, Territory, Till, Time, Toil, Tract, Tractor, Truck farming; Undependable, Uprooting; Variety; Water, Weather, Weed, Wool and Worker; yield.|
Action points for the students:
- Make conversations by using the above given vocabulary
- The students are required to make at least 2 sentences using the each word given above. For instance, the words “pests” and “resistance” can be used to make the sentence, “The pests are developing resistance to the pesticides, owing to their excess usage”.
- Know the names of different kinds of cereals, coarse cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fiber crops, cash crops, plantation crops etc.
- Conversation about a Railway Station
|Ram||How far is the railway station from your house?|
|Sarala||The station is far away from our house.|
|Ram||Oh! How do you go to the station then?|
|Sarala||We have to go to the station by vehicle.|
|Ram||How big is your railway station?|
|Sarala||The railway station in our town is very big. There are at least 10 long platforms.|
|Ram||Are there any stalls on the platforms?|
|Sarala||Yes. There are many stalls on the platforms. Several eatables are sold in these stalls.|
|Ram||How many passengers travel by trains in your town?|
|Sarala||I don’t know exact number. However, the platforms are full of passengers always.|
|Ram||Where are the offices of the station master and booking?|
|Sarala||The office of the station master is located on the platform number 1. Booking counters are located on the front side of the station. You’ll find ticket buyers in the queues and tickets are dispensed very fast.|
|Ram||very interesting to know about your railway station. What about announcements on the arrival and departure of the trains?|
|Sarala||The announcer informs the departures and arrivals of the trains in three languages. They are Telugu, Hindi and English. Digital boards also display the arrival and departure of various trains.|
|Ram||What are the common scenes in the railway station?|
|Sarala||The common scenes are arrival and departure of trains, boarding and disembarking of commuters, cries of the hawkers etc.|
|Ram||In our town, people board the moving train. What about your railway station?|
|Sarala||Here also same.|
|Ram||Does your railway station have cargo facility?|
|Sarala||Yes. Our station is located just 70 km from Bangalore. Farmers send their agricultural produce to the Bangalore city by trains. There are special bogeys in passenger trains and also special trains carrying only the cargo.|
- Dialogue between two friends on Environmental Pollution and its affects
|Gayathri||Hello Prathima, how are you? Why do you look so worried?|
|Prathima||You are right Gayathri. I’m somewhat worried about environmental pollution.|
|Gayathri||Oh, yes! Our enviroment is in great danger. It has been polluted severely.|
|Prathima||The problem of environmental pollution has become a major threat for the human race, animals and plants. What are you thiking aobut its impact?|
|Gayathri||The impact of environmental pollution is serious. It leads to ecological imbalnce and brings about natural disaters|
|Prathima||Absolutely! Besides, the global warming is the result of evironmental pollution. What is your idea about it?|
|Gayathri||I agree with you. As a result, I think the flora and fauna are on the verge of exctinction.|
|Prathima||In addition to, the ice is melting and sea level is alarmingly rising.|
|Gayathri||Yes of course. Besides, owing to environmental pollution we have been suffering from various kinds of diseases.|
|Prathima||Well said Gayathri. The environmental pollution is playing havoc with the low lying areas of the World. It is also destryoing the temperature sensitive corals in the Seas.|
|Gayathri||Yes Prathima. My lecturer has told us that the rising temperature is going to reduce the crop yielding and creating food shortages.|
|Prathima||The Dehli Government is following odd and even vehicle number system to reduce the environmental pollution.|
|Gayathri||What does it mean?|
|Prathima||It means on odd and even numbered vehicles are allowed to go on roads on alterate days. It would reduce the number of vehicles on the road and thus helps in controlling vehicular pollution.|
|Gayathri||I heard about Paris Climate Summit. In the summit, it was decided by the world countries to bring down the Earth’s temperate below 2 degree celcius when compared to pre-industrial levels.|
|Prathima||I also heard that the world countries want to promote non-renewble sources such as wind, solar and hydro powers to reduce environmental pollution.|
|Gayathri||Ok Prathima. I have to leave. Feel happy to spend time with you.|
|Prathima||It is my pleasure spending time with you. I learnt a lot about environmental pollution and its harmful effects on the Earth, plants, animals and humanbeings. Bye..|
Vocabulary related to Environmental pollution:
Acid rain; Carcinogen; Contamination; Water Pollution; Noise Pollution; Radiation Pollution;
Dumping; Hazardous waste; Domestic waste; Industrial Discharges;
Vehicular exhaust; Pollution; Pesticide; Pollutants; Sewage; Soil Pollution; Green House Gases; Green House Effect; Global Warming; Ozone depletion; Melting of Polar ice caps; Coral Bleaching; Fossil fuels; Renewble sources of Energy; Non-renewable sources of Energy; Smog; Sustainable Development; Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Green Cover; Ecology; Ecological balance; Recycle, Re-use, Reduce, Bio-degradable; Conservation; Wild life; Deforestation; Afforestation; Biodiversity; Chloro Flouro Carbons; Clean Energy.
- Dialogue between two friends on Water Scarcity
|Giri||Hello Ravi, how are you? Where have you been? I have just been to your house.|
|Ravi||Hi Giri! I’m fine. I have been to Panchayat Office to check whether wanter tanker has come or not. How are you? When did you come from Chennai?|
|Giri||I came yesterday. My mother told me that our village bore well has dried up and the Government is supplyig water by tankers|
|Ravi||It is very sad. When we were kids, the total water demand of the village was met by a single well. The well was replaced by a hand pump in eighties and in nineties by a tube well. Now, the water table has gone down as deep as five hundred metres.|
|Giri||It appears that due to severe drought, bore wells have also dried up, forcing the Panchayats to supply water through the tankers. I don’t know what is next?.|
|Ravi||Are we not heading towards greater danger Giri? It is very interesting to note that two-thirds of the Earth is filled with water, but we don’t have enough water for our needs.|
|Giri||Ravi, it is more interesting to note Ravi that only three per cent of the world’s water is fresh and the remaining is saline and thus, not useful for human consumption.|
|Ravi||What are the forms of fresh water on the Earth?|
|Giri||The fresh water is available in the form of polar ice caps, glaciers, rivers/streams and ground water.|
|Ravi||Giri, we are really in danger. We have misused/overused ground water and this source is going to be dried up in near future. The polar ice caps are melting away due to shooting temperature. The streams and the rivers will be dried up once polar ice caps disappear.|
|Giri||Yes Ravi. We are heading towards irreversible loss of source of life on the Earth, i.e., water. We are required to take some corrective measures on a war footing. Otherwise, the human race will be annihilated, along with other life forms of life.|
|Ravi||What are the measures we can take to reverse this trend?|
|Giri||We shall save each and every drop of water, by way of rain water harvesting structures such as water harvesting pits, check dams, crop ponds etc; cultivate those crops which require very less water; use drip and sprinkler irrigation; avoid rising water intensive crops like paddy and sugar cane; stop wastage of water immedietely; develop effective technologies to reuse the domestic and industrial water and stop polluting water.|
|Ravi||We shall create this awarness in our village. Water is the biggest asset we can accumulate for our future generations. Otherwsie, they will not be able to live. There is no point in accumulating assets worth of crores for our kids, unless water is preserved for their usage. Money or wealth is of no use to our future generations unless water is there to drink and live.|
|Giri||Well said Ravi. If we follow this indiscipline, in water usage, even if we have money, there may not be water to buy in future. Let us create awareness in our village and do the needful.|
|Ravi||Yes Giri, we will do it.|
- Conversation between shop keeper and customer
|Shop Keeper||Can I help you?|
|Customer||No, thanks. I’m just looking around/ Yes, please. Could you show me some hats, please? / Yes, please. I’d like to buy a bag/ I’d like to buy a sweater / a jacket / a pair of shoes / a pair of jeans|
|Customer||Excuse me. Could you help me in getting a pair of pants?|
|Shop Keeper||Yes sir. These are all latest collections of pants. Please select.|
|Customer||I’m looking for a black leather coat. Can you help me?|
|Shop Keeper||Sure sir. What is your size?|
|Customer||My shirt or coat size is 42 inches/ I wear size XL clothes.|
|Shop Keeper||Here is the coat you are looking for sir. It’s perfectly matching your taste.|
|Customer||Would you help me in buying shoes? I wear size 11 shoes. / I wear shoes in size 11.|
|Shop Keeper||Sorry sir. We don’t have shoes in 11 size? You can try 10 size, it may fit your legs.|
|Shop Keeper||Do you think it fits me? I’m afraid these shoes are too small for me.|
|Customer||I would like to buy a belt. Is it made of real leather?|
|Shop keeper||It is pure leather from Kanpur sir. Quality is assured sir.|
|Customer||How much does it cost?|
|Shop Keeper||It’s Rs.1200/-|
|Customer||Can you show me something less expensive?/Ok I will buy it.|
|Customer||Shall I pay by credit card/cash?|
|Shop Keeper||It is your choice sir. I’m ok with both the options|
|Customer||I bought this shirt here yesterday and it’s torn inside. I’d like to replace it, please/ I’d like to return it, please. The balance may be adjusted against the purchases done today.|
|Shop Keeper||Sure sir. I will do that. Thanks for patronizing us.|
- Conversation in an interview
|Raj Kumar||Good morning, Sir.|
|Interviewer||Good morning. Please sit down, Mr. Raj Kumar. Well, I am Krishan Murthy, the CEO of this company.|
|Interviewer||Good to meet you too. Your CV [curriculum vitae] is very impressive. You have done well in your academics and have got through with flying colours.|
|Raj Kumar||Thank you very much, Sir.|
|Interviewer||Bright students like you generally proceed to foreign universities for higher Studies. How come you didn’t opt for it?|
|Raj Kumar||First of all, my parents couldn’t afford it. Secondly, I didn’t want to as I believe Indian Institutions offer quality education and it depends on the students to make the best use of it.|
|Interviewer||Well! You have done B.E. in Computer Engineering and have proceeded to do MBA and specialized in marketing. Is there any particular reason for it?|
|Raj Kumar||Well! I felt a technical degree along with Master in marketing would help me move upwards in my career.|
|Interviewer||That is good thinking! Certainly that’s why you are here for this interview. We are looking for a fresher with such an educational combination to take on as trainees.|
|Raj Kumar||Thank you very much Sir. Well! May I know how long the training will be?|
|Interviewer||No. No exam as such. But you will be assessed for your performance through the entire training period.|
|Raj Kumar||Sir, when will I get to know the result of this interview?|
|Interviewer||Say, within two weeks. You see, we have scheduled a number of interviews. For this week. You have a bright choice Mr. Raj. Best of luck!|
|Raj Kumar||Thank you very much Sir. You’re very kind.|
- Special Activities:
Compeering is a process of acting as host or acting on behalf of the host at formal occasions and makes an introductory speech and introduce other speakers to the gathering. In simple words, compeering is anchoring a programme or an event like college day, annual day, fresher’s day, Earth day etc.
It calls for skill, grace, and eloquence. Success as a compere is not a matter of chance. Instead, careful preparation and precise execution is what makes compeering a thing of beauty. A compere can lift the mood and quality of a programme to great heights. Here are a few simple tips to do so.
- Be sure about all the names of people you have to mention: Know all the names of the people on the stage and important organizers of the event. Know the essence of the event that you are compeering. The names of the persons are required to be pronounced correctly. Never get the names/professions/ Qualifications of the people wrong. Do not label them different from what they wish to be presented as. Go through the bio-data of the people whom you are going to be mentioned in the compeering.
- Be clear about what you are supposed to do: You must know your duties as a compere. Is it to introduce them, felicitate them or simply invite them? Do the organizers expect you to hand over some memento to the Chief Guest to be given to its recipient? And so on.
- It is excellent if you can write down the entire script: It is advisable to jot-down the total notes you are going to speak at stage before you actually do it. This not only gives you confidence, but also gives you freedom to make last minute adjustments. You need to remember that last minute adjustments come in plenty. Type your script in large, easy to read fonts in double space. Leave a lot of margin and spaces in between to insert comments.
- Be lively and enthusiastic in your presentation.A compere sets the tone for the entire programme. It is your privilege to keep the momentum going. Along with the words spoken, dynamism of the compere on stage helps the audience to eagerly anticipate the segment that follows.
- The way you begin is important.It is the starting block from where you will start sprinting. Have a smile from your heart on your face; show confidence in the way you stand; let your movements be with grace and be loud and clear when you begin. More than this, the introduction has to set the tone for the entire event for the day.
- Find a few apt quotations: It would add value to your compeering if you are able to make some appropriate quotes to the occasion. If it is farewell day, you can quote some touching quotation which can connect you to the audience. For example you can say “Goodbyes are not forever. They are not the end. They simply mean I’ll miss you until we meet again!” If you have a supple sense of humour, it would further add taste to the party or event.
- Be careful about voice modulation and clarity.Reduce speed without letting go of enthusiasm. It needs practice. Be loud enough to be heard. You may have to put in 10% to 25% extra effort than your normal speaking to get this right.
- Try to make transitions smooth through comments: The comments shall be brief and to the point. Do not talk for a long. Your role is to facilitate not to dominate. You are like the salt of the earth; adding taste without really clamoring for attention.
- Anticipate everything to go wrong:Because many times things do wrong unexpectedly. For example, power failure while someone is singing or speaking. Then you may have to step on stage and take control of things. Be prepared to do so. And also be prepared with knowledge in advance as to what can be done as back-up to redeem the situation.
- Finally, it would be great if you can go and practiceyour compering on stage at the actual venue a day before the event.To sum up, if you can enjoy your performance with confidence, enthusiasm and able to connect with audience, you will do well.
- Never surprise eminent people with off-the-hand announcements that they’ll speak on the topic, that too in front of a packed audience
- Common sense and basic courtesy should not be forgotten while compering.
- When introducing people, always ask how they want to be represented before the crowd.
- Do not overstep your functional role. You are asked to invite the speaker to share his thoughts; and not to speak on his/her topic.
- A compere should be able to understand what the apt remark is for the occasion. Generally, frivolous statements should be avoided. “A word aptly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver.”
- When a simple direct statement is apt and appropriate, do not spoil the moment by making a garland of words with all kinds of wild flowers tied together without sense or sensibility.
- Always strive to make the audience respect the speaker and hold him/her in high regard even with the way you gesture especially with your hands. Never let down the persons on the dias and off-the dias.
- IMPROMPTU OR EXTEMPORE SPEECH
Many situations will often demand for impromptu speech. Some important tips are given below.
- For any speech to be successful, you should first connect yourself to the audience. Once, you are connected to them, you will be able to deliver even un-palatable subject on them. Otherwise, your speech will go above their heads as they would not focus on your talk.
- Say new things which the audience don’t know. Read a lot which will give you command over new ideas. It is said that “All leaders read and leaders can’t rise without reading, either books or people”.
- Get used to talking in front of other people. The truth is that even the calmest of speakers still shake when they get up there. Even celebrities and stars still get nervous on live episodes. Thus it is normal to be nervous before such on-the-spot situations.
- Remember your audience. Always make an eye-contact with them. Not only it will allow the audience not fall asleep, but it will also make you more confident. If your eyes fall upon some distracting audience, ignore them. If you can’t look at their eyes, look at their foreheads.
- Always try to get the audience involved. You might throw a question once in a while or give examples and illustrations keeping in mind the kind of people sitting in the audience. Don’t mumble or sound uninterested. Try and get your audience pumped up.
- Try and twist your topic in case you get a topic about something that you cannot relate to, try and morph it into something that is only vaguely related, but still related enough to make sense.
- Incorporate humor and make people laugh. This way, they will automatically get involved. But always avoid such jokes or statements which can hurt someone’s sentiments. In general also, be careful to not say something offensive. Not only can it harm you standings in competition, it can also make you look like a bad person.
- If you’re facing a more serious impromptu speech, you should appear confident about yourself. Keep your back straight and eyes ahead. It will give you an air of significance and ensure that the audience pays attention to you.
- Body language speaks volumes. Relax when you are talking. Talk at a regular pace-don’t rush, remember to breathe. Act as if you are oozing confidence. Be passionate about whatever your topic is. You have to embrace what you’re talking about with arms wide open.
- When preparing, write a couple of sentences on each point or brainstorm. Also try reading lots of books on a wide variety of topics, so that you’ll have loads of examples to incorporate into speeches.
- Make sure there’s nothing about your appearance that could possibly embarrass you. Have a trusted friend (or better yet, a mirror) to help you.
Debate is a formal discussion on a particular topic in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote. In simple words, two teams or two persons take different stand on a given issue. For instance, in the Legislative assemblies, the MLAs or Ministers in Government argue in support of the bill introduced by Government and the Opposition Leader and their MLAs argue against the bill. Debates also occur in settings like classrooms and school tournaments. The debates (outside Legislative Bodies) are conducted under the supervision of a judge like person called “Moderator” [Speaker or Chairperson in Legislative bodies]. The latter anchors the debate and declares the winner/winning team based on the performance of the debating parties.
Basic debate format and terminology:
- Debates are structured arguments or discussions. Teams alternate speeches, where they present their own arguments and refute those of the other team.
- While debaters may use emotion, they should not yell or be rude to one another or to the audience.
- Each side must present and prove their arguments. Affirmative teams will be arguing for a particular issue or resolution. Negative teams will be arguing against it.
- Each side has a chance to present their own arguments, as well as to offer rebuttals to the other side’s arguments. No new arguments or evidence can be brought up during a rebuttal.
- Some debates include cross-examinations, in which one side can question the other side. There are no limitations as to the questions that can be asked, as long as debaters are courteous.
Purpose of debate:
- Debate removes legal inconsistencies and contradictions on an issue
- It is a mechanism to thrash out the issue
- It enlightens the members on the issue
- Makes the speakers aware of the voice of the opposition and therefore leaves scope for reconciliation and improvement
- Debate enhances the concentration of the beginners
- It improves the personality of the participants. They can’t remain shy and still debate. They must speak up when the opposition challenges them on the issue. Contrastingly, if any participant is arrogant or become angry, his mind is unclear and inevitably, his partners would defeat him. At all times the participants need to maintain emotional balance.
Tips for the participants for doing debate effectively:
- Read the topic of debate thoroughly and understand all the issues embedded in the topic
- Make your own points for debate
- Gather the facts/figures/statistical data in support of your arguments
- Try to be as cool as possible, so that emotional balance can be maintained
- Getting tense and losing emotional balance would completely spoil the case and the opponent will sure to win.
- The general structure of a debate should be followed as: state your argument, then explain your argument and finally, illustrate your argument, with facts and figures.
- You are supposed to guess the arguments of the opponents and make the points to counter them.
- You should know that no argument can be absolutely right or wrong. It is the presentation of the facts and reasoning make the argument acceptable to the opposition or to the speaker or the examiner.
- Know where the debate is headed before it starts and ask yourself before the round even begins, and then again when you start preparing for every speech “how am I most likely to win the debate? How are my opponents most likely to win the debate?” Your goal should always be to place yourself in your opponents’ and judges’ shoes, and then cover the flow accordingly
- Use hand gestures and facial expressions that illustrate your argument.This way, the audience has a visual and won’t get bored. Also, practice speaking your debate in front of your friends, parents, or anyone willing to listen. If practiced in front of the mirror, you can analyze your facial expression and hand gestures.
- Learnthe art and history of rhetoric which can help you win arguments by letting his opponents contradict themselves with their own words. Therefore, listen hard to speeches
Basis for evaluating the performance of debating parties:
- Merit in the arguments
- Logic in the argument
- Cogency or convincing nature of the argument
- Content in the form of facts, figure and case studies
- Brevity in presentation
- Adherence to the time limits set by the Moderator for making the argument
- Achieving success in taking the argument to logical conclusion
- The argument shall not fall in fallacies or proved to be wrong by opposition
- Emotional balance and control
- Solid evidence for the facts/figures used by the participant
- GROUP DISCUSSION
In a Group Discussion (GD), you are expected to contribute meaningfully to the issue under consideration and help to arrive at a consensus. It is not a platform for you to fight and dominate. Flexibility and gelling with the group is very important. Group discussion helps to evaluate candidate’s personality. A group of participants are made to discuss on a topic or subject for a limited time and then assessed accordingly. It is a chance for you to be more vocal.
Advantages of a group discussion:
- It helps to shed away the shyness of a candidate and brings his viewpoint amidst all.
- It stimulates to think in a different, new way.
- It helps the candidate in understanding his/ her own strengths and weaknesses.
- It acts as an aid in expansion of the knowledge of the participant.
- It helps to analyze the social or economic issues more logically.
The following behaviors are generally assessed through this method.
- Personal Leadership
- Result Orientation
- Customer and Market Orientation
- Engaging others
- Strategic thinking
- Intercultural sensitivity and effectiveness
- Change Management
- Depth in the Subject
Tips for effective Group Discussion:
The following tips should be borne in mind in order to have a successful GD:
- Arrive on time and dress formally. This is not a casual discussion, but one that will help you get a job by evaluating your personality. You need to look impressive, well-groomed and confident.
- If you have some doubts or want some clarifications on the subject/topic of the discussion, make sure to ask and clear them before the discussion begins and not after that.
- Always carry a pen and a notebook. This allows you to refer to what others have said already. It also helps you to jot down points or arguments which you might want to put across the GD participants at the right time.
- Just be yourself and do not show arrogance or aggressiveness. Body language is important, so be careful while using gestures and do not ever be aggressive. Be as natural as possible and do not imitate others. In an attempt to behave like someone else, your opinions will not be portrayed.
- If you are very clear about the topic and know a lot it, then grab the opportunity to speak first, i.e. start the GD with your opinion. It is a major plus and generally leaves a good impression but, again, utilize this move only if you have thorough knowledge on the subject.
- Maintain eye contact with team members / GD participants while putting across your points. Also keep nodding occasionally, when others speak, as it shows your receptivity towards them.
- Sit with a straight and confident posture and do not slouch or sit in a shabby manner. You should smile or laugh gently if a humorous situation arises.
- Ensure that you listen as well and appreciate what others are saying. If you do not agree with someone’s point, let them complete and then raise your objection. Do not interrupt. While raising an objection to a point kept by another speaker, back it up with a solid reason/evidence/explanation to get the point across the table.
- Be an active, positive and dynamic participant. Do not be over-confident. The examiner wants to hear you. So put forth your views. Try and sort out contradictions and arguments. Providing a meaningful direction to the discussion always leaves a good impression on the evaluators.
- Understand that the aim is not to speak often or for long periods. The aim is to speak precise and clear with your points. Do not repeat a point, or be lengthy or irrelevant. Also intervene, but not interrupt, if someone else is going on an irrelevant track. Ultimately, the discussion has to reach a conclusion and you must strive towards that.
- Be assertive, yet humble. You need to stick to your values and beliefs, but learn to respect the values and opinions of others too.
- Facilitate contribution from others. Do not just go on and on with only your opinionated view. Remember, it is a group discussion. Allow others to speak too.
- Think well before you speak. You are being heard and judged upon.
- Use quotes, facts and figures, statements, everyday life examples to express a clear chain of thoughts. Also it might leave a good impression on the examiner and help you score well.
- In case, someone is struggling with a word or phrase, feel free to help the participant, without condescension and with a smile. This goes on to show that you are a good team worker, who is willing to help others in time of need.
Interview is a process of testing your knowledge and personality. It decides your suitability to the job under consideration. It would be your endeavor to present yourself in a best possible way, so that you will be rewarded with a job of your choice. To perform better in the interview, you can follow the following procedure.
- Do your research: First, know about the company or organization in which you are seeking employment. Second, be thorough with the roles and responsibilities of the job under consideration. You are required to sell yourself very well in the interview. If your choice is to get a job in the company, know about its services, products, customers and competition. You must have at least some plan to improve the sales of the company products or services by your knowledge and ingenuity. If the interview is for Government job, you shall know the nature of job and challenges faced in the relevant organization.
- Present yourself in a best way: Depending on the industry and position, get out your best interview clothes and check them over for spots and wrinkles. Above all, dress for confidence. If you feel good, others will respond to you accordingly. Wear light coloured shirts and matching tie. Pants can be darker. Avoid silky and very dark coloured clothes for the interview.
- Punctuality: Never arrive late to an interview. Enter the building 10 to 15 minutes before the interview
- Show enthusiasm: A firmhandshake and plenty of eye contact demonstrate confidence. Speak distinctly in a confident voice, even though you may feel shaky. Maintain eye to eye contact with the members of the board. If another member asks you something while you are answering to some member, you may complete the answer and then take permission from him and turn the member who disrupted you.
- Be attentive and listen carefully: One of the most fascinating things given to us by God and one of the most neglected interview skills is listening. Job aspirants ready to vomit the data without understanding what is asked in the interview. First understand the query and then answer properly. If you are not able follow the question, you can politely ask “Pardon me sir or Madam”/“Pardon me sir. I’m not able to follow the question/ could you please repeat the question”. Be attentive to avoid this interruption from your side.
- Don’t bluff: Telling something what you don’t know may not help. Understand the question and give appropriate answer. If you don’t know the answer, tell politely “Sorry sir, I’m not able to recollect the answer/ Sorry sir, I don’t know”. There is no need to feel sorry for not knowing the things. You are not supposed to know everything under the sky. But don’t bluff. In other words, never try to answer which you are not sure or don’t know.
- Know the rules of the game: Meet some of your seniors or colleagues who are already in the job and know tips from them for better performance. Follow their guidelines and prepare well for the interview. Of course there is no guarantee that they will ask the questions from the areas you have read or what you know. But decent reading will promote confidence in you.
- Give Specific Examples: One specific example is worth 50 vague stories. Prepare your stories/reason for choosing particular job/profession, well before the date of interview. Give examples thathighlight your successes and uniqueness from your past experience. The common personal queries in the interview are “why have you chosen this field?” “Why should we select you for this job?” and “Explain your aptness to the requirement of the organization”. You shall have a cogent answer for the above queries.
- Confidence and common sense: Do interview with confidence. Speak loud enough to be heard by everybody in the board. Don’t fumble even if you don’t know the answer. The number of questions you had answered is not the criteria for your selection, but the number of questions you have answered with confidence and smile on the lips, is the determining factor here. Confidence gives calmness to mind and which in turn get the ideas to answer things in a better manner. The worst thing that may happen in the interview is not getting the job, hence do it smartly.
- General etiquettes: Sit comfortably in the chair. Never sit too back side and not on the edge of the chair. Keep the backbone strait on the chair and bent body a little to indicate that you are attentive. Hands can be moved very slightly and not like politicians do. Never raise hand above your chest while talking to the members. Don’t look backside or sideways while talking to any member. Don’t scratch your head or rub your cheeks or nose which is an indication of weakness and lack of confidence. Once your interview is done, the members will say, “You can leave”, then thank the Board and then leave the place.
Part-3: ENGLISH GRAMMER
- Introduction to Parts of Speech
Lord Ram [Noun], an avatar of the Supreme Protector, Vishnu, [Noun] is an all-time favorite among Hindu deities (Noun). He was blue [Adjective] in color. He [pro-noun] is considered to be a symbol of truth, of morality, [Noun] of compassion, [Noun] the ideal son, and [conjunction] the ideal king. He deserted [Main Verb] the kingdom [Noun] and went to forest, to keep the promise of his father. In the forest, his wife, Sita was [Auxiliary verb] abducted [Main Verb] by King of Sri Lanka, Ravan. Ram with [preposition] help of Hanuman found that Sita was interned [Main Verb] in Lanka. Ram built a land bridge across [Preposition] the waters of Indian Ocean [Noun] between [Preposition] India and Sri Lanka. In a fierce battle, both sides fought [Main Verb] ferociously [Adverb]. Wow! [Interjection] Ram killed the powerful [Adjective] and mighty [Adjective] Ravan in the battle.
There are eight parts of speech in English language. They are, Noun, Pro-noun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Pre-position, conjunction and Interjection.
- Noun is a naming word. It describes the names of persons [Ram, Hanuman etc.], places [India, Ayodya, Sri Lanka etc.] and things [bow, arrows, fan, computer, water, bees etc.]
- Pro-Noun is a substitute word for Noun. This is used in place of Noun. He, she, it, we, us, they, them etc.
- Adjective describes the qualities of Noun or Pro-Noun. It qualifies Noun or Pro-Noun. Black, white, red or kind, compassionate, cruel, bad, good, worst, tall, short, short-tempered etc.
- Verb is an action word. It describes the actions of Noun or Pro-Noun. Killing, playing, Singing, dancing, talking, waiting etc.
- Adverb, as the name indicates gives additional information on the verb. It modifies the meaning of verb or explains the way the action has been executed by the doer. Walking slowly, killing ferociously, dancing ugly, singing melodiously, working vigorously, running very fast
- Preposition takes a position before Noun or Pro-noun sometime before adjective. Lying between lake and road, sandwiched between two powers, building a tunnel under ground, sitting on the wall, staying above board, standing below table, quarrelling among the birds, fight between cocks etc.
- Conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and shows the relation between them. We know that the word junction connects two places. Take the same meaning here also. But, because, or, yet, either or, neither nor, whether
- Interjections express the emotions or sudden feelings or sentiments of the speaker or convey hesitation or protest. They are usually followed by an exclamation mark. Oops, Ouch, Wow, Hmm. Yeah, yah
Chittoor, Ananthapuramu and Kurnool are towns in Andhra Pradesh. They are district headquarters. They are located on our way towards Hyderabad. They have become popular in the year 2015 for various reasons. They have banks, theatres, and many shops. People who have lived here all their lives speak with a characteristic accent which other parts of Andhra may hardly understand.
[All the highlighted words in the above paragraph are Nouns]
- Noun is a naming word
- It describes the names of persons, places or things.
Types of Nouns
|Sl.No||Type of Nouns||Examples|
|1||Proper Nouns||Ram, Shankar, Chennai, India etc.|
|2||Common Nouns||Pen, Man, River, Book, Country etc.|
|3||Collective Nouns||Flock, Team, Class, Army, Bunch etc.|
|4||Material Nouns||Gold, Silver, Wood, Sand, Mutton etc.|
Action points for the participants:
- They shall know different types of nouns and their usage
- Know at least five examples for each noun which are not covered in the class room
- Learn at least 10 new words (vocabulary) which are related to nouns.
- Pro-Noun is used in place of Noun.
- It is substitutes the Noun.
It was a fine day, so I decided to go for a walk. I phoned Jyothi and asked her if she would like to come with me. We met at the park gate. Two of our friends walked past. Jyothi invited them to join us, but they were busy. “See you at school tomorrow,” I said.
[All the highlighted words in the above paragraph are Nouns]
Action points for the participants:
- They shall know different types of Pro-nouns and their usage
- They have to make sentences using different kinds of pronouns and tell some stories or passages using pronouns.
- Learn at least 10 new words (vocabulary).
Adjectives are words that are used to describe (what kind of?) nouns and pronouns and to quantify (how much of?) and identify (which one?) them. In a nutshell, Adjectives are what define nouns and give them characteristics to differentiate them from other nouns. For example: He was wearing a blue shirt. Here ‘blue’ is an adjective as it is describing the noun ‘shirt’ by answering the question ‘what kind of shirt?’ There are seven rooms in the house.
Here ‘Seven’ is also an adjective as it’s telling the quantity/the number of the noun ‘rooms’, answering the question ‘how many rooms?’.
There are different types of adjectives based upon their effect on a noun and what do they tell about the noun. There are five categories of adjectives which are described in the table below.
|Type of the Adjective||Examples|
|1||Adjectives of Quality||Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc.|
|2||Adjectives of Quantity||All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc.|
|3||Adjectives of Number||One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. [Cardinals]
First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. [ Ordinals]
|4||Demonstrative Adjectives||This, That, These and Those|
|5||Interrogative Adjectives||What, where, which, whose etc.|
Vocabulary related to Adjectives
- Know the meaning of all the above words
- Make at least two sentences by using the above words
The words “a”, “an”, and “the” are special adjectives called articles. They are two type of articles- Indefinite and Definite Articles
Indefinite Articles—a, an
“An” is used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound. Eg. an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange
“A” is used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u). Eg: a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book
- Definite Article—“the”:
Can be used before singular and plural, count and non-count nouns
Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context:
- Please close the door.
- I like the clothes you gave me.
Used to indicate a noun that is unique:
- Praise the Lord!
- The Columbia River is near here.
Used to designate a natural phenomenon:
- The nights get shorter in the summer.
- The wind is blowing so hard.
Used to refer to a time period:
- I was very naïve in the past.
- This song was very popular in the 1980s.
Used to indicate all the members of a family:
- I invited the Bakers for dinner.
- This medicine was invented by the Smiths.
- THE VERB
- Verb is an “action word”
- It describes the action of “doer” [Kartha in Telugu] or Noun or Pro-Noun.
Types of Verbs
|Sl.no||Type of the Verb||Examples|
|Take, Give, Beat, Travel, work , carry, Learn, love, play, publish, fly, drink, plough, bite, swim, write etc.|
|2||Auxiliary Verbs||Be & its forms: Am, is/was & are/were|
|Do &its forms: Do, Does & Did|
|Have and its forms: Have, Has & Had|
44.1. BE AND ITS FORMS
Tomorrow is Sports Day, and the school grounds are being prepared for the event. I am taking part in the five races. A famous athlete has been invited to present the prizes. I hope the weather will be fine. Last year it was wet, and by the end of the day we were all very muddy.
1.Be is used to express the existence of someone or something.
Eg: Raju is there at home.
- Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express an agreement.
Eg: she is to marry him.
- Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express an arrangement.
Eg: They are to play cricket.
- Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a command.
Eg: you are to repay my money.
- Be is used to express some advice.
Eg: Be polite with others.
- Be is used to express a request.
Eg: Please, be with me.
- Be is used to form Present Continuous Tense.
Eg: I am typing something.
- Be is used to form Past Continuous Tense.
Eg: She was working in Delhi.
- Be is used to form Passive Voice.
Eg: English is used widely.
44.2 DO AND ITS FORMS
Uses : DO
1.Do is used to form emphatic sentences.
Eg: I do speak in English.
- Do is used to form interrogative Sentences.
Eg: Do you go there?
- Do is used to form negative sentences.
Eg: I don’t like coffee.
- Do is used to form negative interrogative sentences.
Eg: Do you not like coffee?
- Do is also used in short answers.
Eg: Do you understand Telugu? Yes, I do.
- Do is also used as a substitute for some other verbs.
44.3 Have and its forms
- Have is used to express possession when used as an ordinary verb.
Eg: I have a book.
- Have is used to mean ‘to et’, ‘to drink’ etc, when used as an ordinary verb.
Eg: I have coffee at 7:00 a.m.
- Have is used to form present perfect tense.
Eg: I have seen a movie.
- Have is used to form past perfect tense.
Eg: They had completed the project work when we went there.
- Have is used to form present perfect continuous tense.
Eg: We have been learning English for 10 days.
- Have is used to form past perfect continuous tense.
Eg: I had been reading a book when they came.
- Have is used to form interrogative sentences.
Eg: Have you seen any movie?
- Have is used to form negative sentences.
Eg: I have not seen him.
- Have is used to form negative interrogative sentences.
Eg: Have you not met here?
- Have is used in perfect tenses to form Passive voice.
- Have is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a practical necessity.
Eg: You have to work smart to earn money.
- Have is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a command.
Eg: You have to attend all the classes.
44.4 MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS:
The verbs that are used to express various moods or mental attitudes are called Modal auxiliaries.
Ex: CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, SHALL, WILL, SHOULD, MUST, WOULD, NEED, DARE, OUGHT TO, USED TO.
- Can is used to express the ability of doer.
Ex: I can speak in English.
- Can is used when we request someone for something.
Ex: Can you please, help me?
- Can is used when we take permission from someone to do something.
Ex: Can I speak in Hindi?
- Can is used when we give permission to someone to do something.
Ex: You can ask any doubt.
- Can is used when we talk about possibility.
Eg: Anybody can learn English.
- Could is used when we express past ability.
Ex: I could win the race.
- Could is used when we make a polite request.
Ex: Could you help me some money?
- Could is used when we take permission in the more formal way.
Ex: Could I use your telephone?
- Could is used when we express possibility.
Ex: If I were a millionaire, I could help them.
- Could is used in indirect speech.
Ex: She said that she could speak in English.
1.May is used when we express uncertainty or possibility.
Ex: I may become a Lawyer.
2.May is used when we express a wish.
Ex: May God bless you.
- May is used when we make a polite request.
Ex: May I ask a question?
- May is used when we give permission.
Ex: You may go anywhere.
- May is used when we express a purpose.
Ex: Learn that you may get a job.
- Might is used to express less possibility.
Ex: It might rain today.
- Might is used when we seek permission.
Ex: Might I ask a question?
- Might is used in indirect speech.
Ex: She said that her friend might support her.
- Might is used when we express a gentle reproach.
Ex: You might spend the money carefully.
- Shall is used to express prediction.
Ex: I shall attend the program tomorrow.
- Shall is used to express a command.
Ex: You shall pay fine for coming late.
- Shall is used to express a promise.
Ex: I shall help you.
- Shall is used to express a threat.
EX; You shall get punishment.
- Shall is used to express determination.
Ex: You shall give the reason for your failure.
- Shall is used to take permission.
Ex: Shall I tell you something?
- Shall is used to give suggestion.
Ex: Shall we have coffee?
- Shall is used to express prediction.
Ex: I shall attend the program tomorrow.
- Shall is used to express a command.
Ex: You shall pay fine for coming late.
- Shall is used to express a promise.
Ex: I shall help you.
- Shall is used to express a threat.
EX; You shall get punishment.
- Shall is used to express determination.
Ex: You shall give the reason for your failure.
- Shall is used to take permission.
Ex: Shall I tell you something?
- Shall is used to give suggestion.
Ex: Shall we have coffee?
- Will is used to express prediction.
Ex: He will go to London next year.
- Will is used to express probability.
Ex: I think he will be there in Delhi by next week.
- Will is used to express a request.
Ex: Will you return my book?
- Will is used to express a characteristic habit.
Ex: She will boast of herself.
- Will is used to express a promise.
Ex: I will solve your problem.
- Will is used to express a threat.
Ex: I will teach you a lesson.
- Will is used to express a determination.
Ex: I will see your end.
- Would is used to express willingness.
Ex: I would do it for you.
- Would is used to express determination.
Ex: They would run the business.
- Would is used to express a past habit.
Ex: He would watch many movies.
- Would is used to express improbable condition.
Ex: If I were rich, I would help the poor.
5.Would is used to express a wish.
Ex: I would like to make many friends.
- Would is used to express an intension.
Ex: I wish I would become an I.A.S. officer.
- Would is used to make a polite request.
Ex: Would you wait for a while?
- Would rather is used to express a choice.
Ex: He would rather die than live with her.
- Should is used to express advice.
Ex: You should take care of your health.
- Should is used to express duty.
Ex: We should pay taxes.
- Should is used to express obligation.
Ex: The rich should help the poor.
- Should is used to express a purpose.
Ex: Run fast lest you should miss the bus.
- Should is used to express improbable condition.
Ex: If I were you, I should beat him.
Run fast lest you should miss the bus.
- Should is used to express improbable condition.
Ex: If I were you, I should beat him.
- Must is used to express duty.
Ex: we must follow traffic rules.
- Must is used to express obligation.
Ex: We must attend interviews.
- Must is used to express necessity.
Eg: We must take some food every day.
- Must is used to express strong determination.
Eg: We must speak in English.
- Need is used to express requirement when used as a main ver.
Ex: I need some money.
- Need is used to express necessity when used as an auxiliary verb.
Ex: Need I buy this book?
- Need is used to express necessity when used with ‘to’ infinitive.
Ex: Do you need to read many books?
- Dare is used to express the courage of doer when used as an auxiliary verb.
Ex: I dare not question you anything.
- Dare is used to express the courage of doer when used with to infinitive.
Uses: OUGHT TO
- Ought to is used to express moral obligation.
Ex: We ought to help the poor.
- Ought to is used to express duty.
Ex: We ought to cooperate with others.
- Ought to is used to express advice.
Ex: You ought to work hard to succeed in life.
- Ought to is used to express necessity.
Ex: We ought to prepare everything for a picnic.
Uses: USED TO
- Used to is express past habitual actions.
Ex: I used to sing songs.
- Used to is used to express the existence of someone of something in past.
Ex: There used to be a famous person in my village.
- Make at least three sentences by using each and every auxiliary and model verb.
|Base Form||Past Simple||Past Participle||3rd Person Singular||Present Participle / Gerund|
Adverbs are words that are used in sentences to describe or change the meaning of a Verb or Adjective or even another Adverb. They add description to the sentence to make it more detailed and interesting. It modifies the meaning of the verb. For example: He walked slowly across the square. Here, one can see that the Adverb ‘slowly’ is describing the Verb ‘walk’ by telling that the person was walking slowly.
Types of Adverbs
|Type of adverb||Examples|
|1||Adverb of Time||Yesterday and tomorrow|
|2||Adverb of place||there, everywhere etc.|
|3||Adverb of Manner||Quietly, fast etc.|
|4||Adverb of frequency||Every day, every week, every year etc.|
|Adverb of degree||Almost, completely etc|
- Know the meaning of all the above words
- Make at least two sentences by using the above words
Prepositions commonly convey the following relationships: agency (by); comparison (as); direction (to, toward, through); place (at, by, on, under, above, below); possession (of); purpose (for); source (from, out of); and time (at, before, on).
The students came by bus
The students of chittoor are as good as Kurnool
Are going towards the Kondareddi fort?
Have you gone through this book?
Please give this book to Mr. Giri.
The hen is under the basket.
The spectacles are on the table
The rooms are meant for the visitors
I have received a courier/letter/appreciation from my teacher.
Allow the cat to go out of the room
I will reach Ananthapuram at 2 PM.
He may reach Pilier before noon
The pre-positions are classified as simple, compound, two word and phrasal for the purpose of convenience and understanding.
|Simple pre-positions||Compound prepositions||Two word prepositions|
|At the back of
At the end of
At the expense of
At the risk of
By dint of
By force of
By means of
By reason of
By virtue of
By way of
For fear of
For the benefit of
For the lack of
For the love of
For the sake of
For want of
In accordance with
In addition to
In advance of
In aid of
In case of
In comparison with
|In compliance with
In connection with
In consequence of
In consultation with
In contraction to
In favour of
In front of
In lieu of
In need of
In order to
In place of
In quest of
In reference to
In regard to
In search of
In spite of
In support of
In the absence of
In the event of
In the matter of
In the presence of
|In view of
On account of
On behalf of
On the basis of
Of the condition of
On the eve of
Of the grounds of
On the part of
On the point of
On the receipt of
Under the cover of
Under the eve of
Under the guidance of
Under the pretence of
Under the wings of
With a view to
With an aim to
With an eve to
With reference to
With the purpose of
- Know the meaning of all the above pre-positions /phrases
- Make at least two sentences by using the above pre-positions/phrases
A conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and shows the relation between them. They are used to avoid making the text seem like bullet points and to make the text flow. E.g.
Jai saw a dog on the road. He decided to adopt the dog. Jai brought the dog home.
Jai saw a dog on the road and decided to adopt the dog, so he brought the dog home.
Here ‘and’ and ‘so’ are conjunctions which are used to join the sentences and show the relation between them.
There are seven main coordinating conjunctions which can be remembered by an easy acronym, “FANBOYS”.
|Type of conjunction||Examples|
Soon [ acronym “FANBOYS”]
|2||Sub-ordinate conjunctions||Because, Since, Although, As, Before, Once, Though Until, Whether etc.|
|3||Correlative conjunctions||Either/or, Neither/nor, just as/so, not only/but, whether/or|
- Know the meaning of all the above words
- Make at least two sentences by using the above words
Interjections are small words that bear no grammatical connection with the sentences in which they are used. They express the emotions or sentiments of the speaker or convey hesitation or protest. They are usually followed by an exclamation mark. Different types of interjections used in daily life are as under.
|Aah||Exclamation of fear||Aah! The monster’s got me!|
|Ahh||Realization or acceptance||Ahh, now I see what you mean.|
|Aww||Something sweet or cute||Aww! Just look at that kitten.|
|Bingo||Acknowledge something as right||Bingo! That’s exactly what we were looking for!|
|Eh||Question something||So that was all she said, eh?|
|Eww||Something disgusting||Eww! That movie was so gory.|
|Hmph||To indicate displeasure||Hmph. I could that for half the amount he charged.|
|Oh||I see/ I think||Oh, it’s been around a week since I saw her.|
|Oops||Making a mistake||Oops! Sorry I didn’t see those skates there.|
|Ouch||Exclamation of pain||Ouch, that hurt! Stop pinching me!|
|Shh||An indication for silence||Shh! The show is about to start.|
|Uh oh||Showing dismay||Uh oh! The teacher’s caught him.|
|Whew||Amazement and/or relief||Whew! I can’t believe we actually finished it all.|
|Wow||Expressing surprise or admiration||Wow! That’s really great news!|
|Yay/Yaay||Congratulatory exclamation||I can’t believe you’re actually coming here! Yaay!|
|Yeah||Variant of ‘yes’||Yeah, I’d love some orange juice.|
|Yikes||For fear or concern (not serious)||Yikes, my mother’s home!|
|Yippee||Exclamation of celebration||Yippee! We won, lets head to the bar.|
- Know the meaning of all the above words
- Make at least two sentences by using the above words
- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
|Usage||It is used for daily activities, regular activities, habitual actions,
universal truths, proverbs and quotations etc.
|Time Indicators||daily, every day, every week, every month, every year, every
Sunday, generally, regularly, sometimes, always, often, usually, seldom, never, on Monday, hardly, ever, normally etc
|Formula Rule||Sub+ Verb 1 +Object
Add s/es to the verb if subject is 3rd person singular (he, she & it) Don’t add s/es to the verb if the subject is other than 3rd person
49.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the present tense
|III||He, she, it||They|
|Change of verb based on the tense|
- I go to school every day.
- We read newspaper daily.
- You watch cricket regularly.
- They write exams every year.
- He eats meat every Sunday.
- She sells fruits in the market usually.
- It barks at thieves always.
- I go to bed late normally.
- We rarely see Hindi films.
10.You never tell lies.
- The boys often bunk classes.
- My mother seldom speaks in English.
13.My sister rarely opens books at home.
- Our school bus generally comes late.
- I play games every evening.
16.We pray to God every morning.
- You pay school fees every year.
- Our parents hardly quarrels.
- Ravi takes coffee twice a day.
- Radha reads novels regularly.
- The Sun rises in the East.
- What do I do daily?
- What do we do daily?
- What do you do daily?
- What do your friends do daily?
- What does your father do daily?
- What does your mother do daily?
- What does your pet animal do daily?
49.2. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (NEGATIVES)
Structure of a sentence:
Ex: 1.I don’t tell lies.
- We don’t watch serials on T.V.
- You don’t waste your time.
- The students don’t quarrel.
- My father Doesn’t speak in English.
- My mother doesn’t read English news paper.
- Our village bus doesn’t come in time.
Change positive sentences into negatives:-
- I get up early in the morning.
I don’t get up early in the morning.
- We eat meat every Sunday.
We don’t eat meat every Sunday.
- You go to Sai baba temple every Thursday.
You don’t go to Sai baba temple every Thursday.
- The farmers grow crops every year.
The business people don’t grow crops every year.
- My friend speaks to me on phone every day.
My friend doesn’t speak to me on phone every day.
- Sita writes exams every year.
Sita doesn’t write exams every year.
- Our school bell rings at 9am.
Our school bell doesn’t ring at 9am.
- Tell me what do you do every day and what things your friend doesn’t do?
- Tell me what does your mother do daily and what things your father doesn’t do?
49.3. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Yes/No Questions)
Structure of a sentence:
- Do I tell lies?
A1: Yes, you tell lies.
A2 : No, you don’t tell lies.
- Do you speak in English?
A1: Yes, I speak in English.
A2: No, I don’t speak in English.
- Do we visit Tirumala every year?
A1: Yes, we visit Tirumala every year.
A2: No, we don’t visit Tirumala every year.
- Do the boys play games every evening?
A1: Yes, they play games every evening.
A2: No, they don’t play games every evening.
- Does your father buy you a new dress for every birth day?
A1: Yes, my father buys me a new dress on every birth day.
A2: No, my father doesn’t buy me a new dress on every birth day.
- Does your mother cook special dishes every week?
A1: Yes, my mother cooks special dishes every week.
A2: No, my mother doesn’t cook special dishes every week.
- Does your pet dog bark at thieves?
A1: Yes, my pet dog barks at thieves.
A2: No, my pet dog doesn’t bark at thieves.
- Comparison activities of your friends Ravi and Anjali.
1. Studies well.
2. Comes to school on time.
3. Plays games in evenings.
4. Doesn’t help his parents.
5. Tells always lies.
6. Doesn’t care anybody.
7. Speaks in English.
8. Doesn’t watch serials on T.V.
9. Doesn’t go to bed in time.
10. Likes sweets very much.
1.Doesn’t study well.
2. Doesn’t come in time.
3. Doesn’t play in evenings.
4. Helps her parents.
5. Doesn’t tell lies.
6. Respects everybody.
7. Doesn’t speak English.
8. Watches serials on T.V.
9. Goes to bed in time.
10. Doesn’t like sweets.
- Compare activities between your father and mother?
49.4. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (‘Wh’ Questions)
Structure of a sentence:
|‘Wh’ question form||Do form||Subject||Verb||Object|
Examples: Questions Answers
|1) What do I teach you?
2) When do we write exams?
3) Why do you come late often?
4) Where do you buy vegetables?
5) Whom do you like most in your class?
6) Which subject do you feel most difficult?
7) How do you go to school?
8) What does Mr.Ravi sir teach us?
9) When does your school start?
10) Why does Vani tells lies?
11) Where does your uncle live?
12) Whom does Raju love?
13) Which dress does your father buy you on your birthday?
14) How does your mother cook food?
|A) You teach us English.
A) We write exams every year.
A) I get up late.
A) I buy vegetables in market.
A) Ilike most our English teacher.
A) I feel most difficult with maths.
A) I go to school on foot.
A) Mr. Ravi sir teaches us Science.
A) Our school starts at 9 AM.
A) She tells lies to hide her faults.
A) Our uncle lives in Hyderabad.
A) Raju loves Hema very much.
A) My father buys me jeans pants and T shirt.
A) My mother cooks food on gas stove.
- Make questions about your friend’s daily activities.
- Make questions about your parents’ activities.
- Make questions about your father’s activities.
- Make questions about your mother’s activities.
49.5. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Conversation)
A: It’s a dialogue between 2 friends about “Simple Present Tense”. You
are ‘B’ and I am ‘A’. Shall we start?
B: Yes, Let us.
A: Do you know anything about Simple Present Tense?
B: Yes, I know something about Simple Present Tense.
A: What for we use Simple Present Tense?
B: Simple Present Tense is used for daily activities, regular activities,
habitual actions, storytelling, proverbs and universal truths.
A: What are the time indicators for Simple Present Tense?
B: The time indicators for Simple Present Tense are daily, every day,
regularly, every week, every month, every year, every Sunday, ever,
never, often, seldom, usually, generally, every morning etc.
A: What is the structure of the sentence in Simple Present Tense?
B: It is very simple Sub+Verb1+Object.
A: Do you know the rules of Simple Present Tense?
B: Add s/es to the verb if the subject is 3rd person singulars (he, she, it).
Don’t add e/es to the verbs if the subject is other than 3rd person
Singular (I, we, you, they).
A: Ok, now I will ask you some ‘yes/no’ questions you please answer me.
B: Ok, you please ask me I will answer you.
A: Do I/we/you/they go to temple every week?
B: Yes, I/we/you/they go to temple.
No, I/we/you/they don’t go to temple.
A: Does Ravi come to school regularly?
B: Yes, Ravi comes to school regularly.
No, Ravi doesn’t come to school regularly.
A: What do I/we/you/they buy in the market?
B: I/we/you/they buy fruits and vegetables in the market.
A: How does your English Teacher teach you?
B: Our English teacher teaches us very well.
Our English teacher doesn’t teach well.
A: Very good, you have known about Simple Present Tense.
- B) Tell me your daily routine? A) I get up early in the morning. I brush my teeth. I take my bath. I pray to God. I have my breakfast. I go to spoken English class. I return home and take rest .I take lunch. I watch NEWS on T.V. I play games. I do my homework. I take dinner and go to bed.
- Construct a dialogue between your friend and you about simple present tense?
- THE PAST TENSE (Statements)
|Usage||Past Tense is used for already completed actions in the past|
|Time Indicators||Last night, yesterday, 2 days ago, last week, last Sunday, last month, last year, in 2009 etc.|
|Formula Rule||Sub+ Verb 2 +Object
50.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the past with examples
|1. I went to cinema yesterday.
2. We bought vegetables in the market last night.
3. You sold your bicycle 2 days ago.
4. The boys won the cricket match last Sunday.
5. Ram passed his SSC exam in ‘A’ grade this year.
6. Vani sang an excellent song last month.
7. Nasrin spoken English coaching started in 2003
50.2. Structure of a sentence in the past tense[ Negatives]
|1. I didn’t come to class yesterday.
2. We didn’t do our home work last night.
3. You did not pay the fees last month.
4. The girls did not win the match last Sunday.
5. Kiran did not waste his time in 2012.
6. Tara did not get first rank this year.
7.Our school bus did not come today.
- What did you do yesterday?
- What did your friend do yesterday?
50.3. The past tense (yes / no questions )
1 : Did I scold you ?
A1 : Yes, you scolded me.
A2 : No, you didn’t scold me.
2 : Did we learn spoken English ?
A1 : Yes, we learn spoken English .
A2 : No, we didn’t learn spoken English ?
3 : Did you pay the fees yesterday ?
A1 : Yes , I paid the fees yesterday.
A2 : No, I didn,t pay the fees yesterday.
4 : Did the boys buy the water packets yesterday ?
A1 : Yes, the boys bought water packets yesterday.
A2 : No, the boys didn’t buy the water packets yesterday.
5 : Did Mohan read English news paper yesterday ?
A1 : Yes, Mohan read English news paper yesterday .
A2 : No, Mohan didn’t read English news paper yesterday .
6 :Did Sony join Narayana college ?
A1 : Yes, Sony joined Narayana college.
A2 : No, Sony didn’t joined Narayana college.
7 :Did Magadheera Film play for 100 days ?
A1 : Yes, Magadheera Film played for 100 days .
A2 :No, Magadheera Film didn’t played for 100 days .
50.4. The Past Tense (“wh” – questions )
|“Wh” form||Do form||Subject||Verb||Object||Question mark|
- What did I teach you in the last class?
- You taught us about the past tense.
- When did we buy provisions to our house?
- We bought provisions to home last week.
- Why didn’t you come to class yesterday?
- I was suffering from fever yesterday.
- Ask your friend why did he do something in the past?
- THE FUTURE TENSE (Statements)
|Usage||Future Tense is used for future actions which are going to be held in future.|
|Time Indicators||After 10 minutes, tonight, tomorrow, day after tomorrow, next week, next Sunday, next month, next year, in 2016 etc.|
|Formula Rule||Subject+ Shall / Will +V1+ Object.|
51.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the future tense
- I shall go to Tirumala tomorrow.
- We shall buy fruits in the market tonight.
- You will come to spoken English class next year.
- The boys will go on a picnic next Sunday.
- Charan will come to Piler next week.
- Yojitha will write SSC exams in 2015.
- It will rain at Piler this evening.
51.2.Structure of a sentence in the future tense [Negatives]
- I won’t come late here onwards.
- We won’t quarrel here after.
- You won’t get up early if you go to bed late hours.
- The boys won’t get first rank in public exams.
- Nasir Khan will not lose the match if he plays.
- Bhavana won’t appear for exams this week.
- The price of the gold will fall down.
- I will come to your house tomorrow. 1) I won’t come to your house tomorrow.
- We will go to cinema tonight. 2) We will not go to cinema tonight.
- You will get it tomorrow. 3) You won’t get it tomorrow.
- They will think about it later. 4) They won’t think about it later.
- Harish will learn English in one week. 5) Harish won’t learn English in one week.
- Sandhya will meet you next Sunday. 6) Sandhya will not meet you next Sunday.
- Fair & Lovely will enhance your beauty. 7) Fair & Lovely won’t enhance your beauty.
1) You tell me what will you do tomorrow?
2) You tell me what your friend will do tomorrow?
3) You tell me what your mother/ father will do tomorrow?
- THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Statements)
|Usage||Present Continuous Tense is used for the actions which are going on at the time of we speaking|
|Time Indicators||Now, at present, at the moment|
|Formula Rule||Subject + am /is /are + V1 + ing + Object.|
52.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in present continuous tense
|Person||“Be” form||Verb||“Ing” form||Object|
- I am going to temple now.
- We are eating mangoes now.
- You are speaking lies now.
- They are listening to music now.
- Jaswanth is waiting for me now.
- Nirupama is talking now.
- The bus is coming now.
52.2. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (NEGATIVES)
Structure of a sentence in present continuous tense [Negatives]
|Person||“Be” form||Verb||“Ing” form||Object|
|I||am not||V 1|
- I am not eating now.
- We are not watching T.V. now.
- You are not following me now.
- Some students are not practicing well in English.
- Naik is not coming late now.
- Fouziya is not writing at present.
- Our T.V. is not working/ functioning now.
|I am reading English news paper now||I am not reading English news paper now.|
|We are playing cricket now||We are playing cricket now|
|You are watching serials on T.V.||You are not watching serials on T.V.|
|Spoken English students are speaking English well||Spoken English students are not speaking English well|
|Yogesh is buying water packets now||Yogesh is not buying water packets|
|Geethika is drinking water now||Geethika is not drinking water now|
|It is raining now||It is not raining now|
1) Tell me what your family members are doing now?
2) Tell me what your classmates are doing now?
3) Tell me what the people in the market are doing now?
52.3. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Yes/No Questions)
|“Be” form||Person||Verb||“Ing” form|
|Questions and positive answer||Negative answers|
|Am I telling you lies?
Yes, you are telling lies
No, you are not telling lies.
|Are we speaking in English?
Yes, we are speaking in English.
No, we are not speaking in English.
|Are you going to cinema now?
Yes, I am going to cinema now
No, I am not going to cinema now
|Are your classmates coming with you?
Yes, my classmates are coming with me.
No, my classmates are not coming with me.
|Is Thulasiram watching TV now?
Yes, Thulasiram is watching TV now
|No, Thulasiram is not watching TV now.
|Is Pravallika writing verbs continuously?
Yes, Pravallika is writing verbs continuously
No, Pravallika is not writing verbs.
|Is the auto coming now?
Yes, the auto is coming now.
No, the auto is not coming now.
52.4. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (“Wh” Questions)
|“Wh” form||Be form||Person||Verb||“Ing” form|
- What am I telling about?
- You are telling about your autobiography.
- Where are we sitting now?
- We are sitting in Priyadarsini College now.
- Which dress are you buying now?
- I am buying Jeans Pants and T shirt now.
- Why are Thanish and Harshad Ayub weeping?
- Because Rajeena is scolding them
- Who is calling to Vinitha?
- Raviteja and Thirthananda Raju are calling to Vinitha now.
- Whom is the dog barking at?
- The dog is barking at Eragam Reddy now.
- How many pens is Ashrith buying?
- Ashrith is buying two pens.
- How much money are you spending for cosmetics?
- I am spending Rs.500 for cosmetics per month.
- Ask your friends what they are doing now?
- THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Statements)
|Usage||It is used for just completed actions.|
|Time Indicators||Just now, already, yet, never, recently, before, just, for the actions time not mentioned.|
|Formula Rule||Subject+ have/ has+ V3+ Object|
53.1. Structure of a sentence in present perfect continuous tense
|Subject||Have and its form||Verb||Object|
- I have already seen Baadsha film.
- We have bought a new car recently.
- You have painted the picture just now.
- Our grandparents have presented me a watch.
- Bharath has passed SSC in ‘A’ grade.
- Joshna has joined KKM Goutham School in Vijayawada.
- The train has arrived the platform No.1 just now.
53.2. Structure of a sentence in present perfect continuous tense [Negatives]
|Subject||Have and its form||Verb||Object|
- I have not seen that movie yet.
- We have not received any letters from you.
- You have not yet done your home work.
- The boys have never faced such problems before.
- Mallikaarjuna has not yet paid the fees.
- Mounika has not yet gone to Kadapa.
- The boys have not yet reached Piler.
|I have finished my home work.||I have not yet finished my home work.|
|We have purchased a new flat.||We have not purchased any flat|
|You have insulted me||You have not insulted me|
|They have just come.||They haven’t come yet.|
|Netaji Reddy has written exam||Netaji Reddy has not written exam.|
|Yoshitha has sung a song||Yoshitha has not sung a song.|
|It has rained heavily at Piler.||It has not rained at Piler.|
- Tell me what the things you have done recently are.
- Tell me what the things you have not done are.
- Tell me what the things your friend has done are.
- Tell me what the things your friend has not done are.
53.3. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Yes/No Questions)
|Have and its form||Subject||Verb||Object||Question tag|
- Have I asked you anything?
A1) Yes, you have asked me something. A2) No, you have not asked me anything.
- Have we done any mistake?
A1) Yes, we have done mistake. A2) No, we have not done any mistake.
- Have you received my phone call?
A1) Yes, I have received your phone call. A2) No, I have not received any phone call from you.
- Have your friends passed the exam?
A1) Yes, my friends have passed the exam. A2) No, my friends have not passed the exam.
- Has our English teacher come today?
A1) Yes, our English teacher has come today. A2) No, our English teacher has not come today.
- Has your mother given you money?
A1) Yes, my mother has given me money. A2) No, my mother has not given me any money.
- Has the bell rung?
A1) Yes, the bell has rung. A2) No, the bell has not rung.
53.4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Wh-Questions)
|“Wh” form||Have and its forms||Subject||Verb||Object||Question tag|
|What have I told you?||You have told me not to come late.|
|When have you sold your bike?||I have sold my bike recently|
|Why have you come here?||We have come here to learn English|
|Where have you bought it?||I have bought it in the super market|
|Who has told you this matter?||Mr. Ramesh has told me.|
|Whom has she called?||She has called to Rani.|
|How many marks have you got in your recent exams?||I have got top marks in my recent exams|
|How much money has your father given you?||My father has given me Rs.500|
- Ask your friends what they have done just now?
- STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR VOCABULARY:
Note the differences between the following and make sentences to bring out the differences in their meaning clearly:
- discreet and discrete
2. sink and drown
3. advice and advise
4. practice and practise
5. Sympathy/sympathetic, empathy/empathetic, apathy/apathetic, pathetic
6. amoral, immoral
7. principle and principal
8. stationery and stationary
9. complement, compliment, supplement
10. diffuse, defuse
11. loose, lose
12. elicit, illicit
13. enquire/enquiry, inquire/inquiry, query
15. ensure, insure, unsure, assure
16. elude, allude/allusion, illude/illusion
17. effect, affect
18. ascent, assent, accent, ascendant, descendant, descendent, descent, decent
19. censure, censor
20. council, counsel, consul
21. adapt, adopt, adept
22. premises, premise
23. sensual/sensuality, sensuous/sensuousness
24. disinterested, uninterested
25. collaborate, corroborate
26. marital, martial
27. congenial, congenital
28. conscious/consciousness, conscientious/conscience, cautious/caution
29. denote, connote
30. migrate/migrant, emigrate/emigrant, immigrate/immigrant
31. eminent, imminent, immanent, emanate
32. extent, extant, extinct
33. innervate, enervate
34. implicate, infer, imply, deduce/deduction, induce/induction
35. intolerable, intolerant
36. enlightening, lightening, lightning, lighting
- accede, secede, recede, exceed, succeed, precede, proceed, concede, cede, intercede, supersede
- accession, secession, recession, succession, precession, procession, concession, cession, intercession, supersession
- access, recess, excess, success, precess, process, cess, abscess
- aspect, expect, accept, except
(+ aspectual, expectation, acceptance, exception, expectorant, exceptional, etc.)