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This is a course on spoken English.



Dear friends,

Welcome to the most fascinating one-stop course on Spoken English, Personality Development and career counseling. Congratulations for choosing to be different in the summer holidays. At the outset, let us know what is expected from you and what we will give you in these 21 days of our association.

What is expected from you?

  • Attend all the 21 days without fail and fully involve in the class
  • Shed the fear of speaking English and Public speaking
  • Speak English whether you know it or not.
  • Listen to English bulletins whether you understand them or not
  • Read an English newspaper whether you understand it or not
  • Write a page in English daily
  • Do homework regularly
  • Participate actively in the Group Discussions, Interviews and Quizzes

What is our role in our association of 21 days?

  • We will provide you a suitable environment to start speaking in English
  • Inputs on grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation to the extent required for speaking basic English will be provided
  • Remove your fear of speaking English in public once for all
  • Facilitate to set your goal or sharpen or precise your goal
  • Help you to make a plan for your goal realization
  • Guidance and inputs to improve your personality
  • Get you inputs and guidance on all competitive exams/career counseling from the successful personalities from the respective fields
  • Prepare you to present yourself nicely before interview boards and other public fora

Chief aim of this course:

Youth Empowerment is the chief motto of this course by way of capacity building. Our aim is to build and improve your capacities in terms of attitude, soft skills, behavioral improvement, self-confidence, conduct in public and before interview boards.

Fundamental theme:

All of us have learnt our “mother tongue” by just listening to parents, observing society and nature. We started speaking the language without knowing grammar, pronunciation and other related things. It was improved by trial and error method. Further refined by reading and writing as you grow up in the society. In this course, let us follow [the] same four techniques of learning, viz. Speaking, Listening, Writing and Reading with more emphasis on the first two.

You may be thinking that to do the above things, you must know full vocabulary of English, grammar and pronunciation. That is not factually correct. Start with what you know. Work on what you don’t know. Learn and improve every day. Your determination to succeed in life and live life with dignity would take care of the remaining things. If you keeps-on thinking to speak English, you will become an expert in thinking and if you start speaking English, you will become an expert in English.


Yours friendly





Chapter Topic Page No
1 Positive Thinking  
2 Self confidence  
3 3Ds  
4 3Ps  
5 Understand the fallacy of other’s criticism  
6 Aim high  
7 Goal setting and goal realization  
8 Focus and up-dation is the key to success  
9 Realise yourself  
10 Skill yourself  
11 Hard work is the key  
12 Difficulties are to better you not to batter you  
13 Cruelty is the order of the Nature  
14 Learn from the nature and practice in life  
15 Be a trend setter  
16 Fear Management  
17 Time Management  
18 Qualities of a winner and loser  
19 Our expectations from you and our message  
20 Introduce yourself & template for the same  
21 Introducing in a stranger  
22 Introduce your friend to another friend and

Template for describing persons, places and things

23 Sharing of Family information  
24 Sharing of Class information  
25 Sharing of College information  
26 Situations and template for spoken English  
27 Phrases for certain situations/occasions  
28 Expression of Feelings  
29 Giving directions and useful phrases  
30 Description of an object  
31 Describing a place  
32 Conversation between two farmers  
33 Conversation about a railway station  
34 Dialogue between two friends on Environmental pollution and its effects  
35 Dialogue between two friends on water scarcity  
36 Conversation between a shop keeper and a customer  
37 Conversation in an interview  
38 Special Activities  
38.1 Compeering  
38.2 Impromptu speech  
38.3 Debate  
38.4 Group discussion  
38.5 Interview  
39 Introduction to Parts of speech  
40 Noun  
41 Pronoun  
42 Adjective and vocabulary related to adjectives  
43 Articles  
44 The Verb  
44.1 Auxiliary verbs- Be and its forms  
44.2 Auxiliary verbs-Do and its forms  
44.3 Auxiliary verbs- Have and its forms  
44.4 Modal Auxiliaries  
45 Adverb and vocabulary related to adverbs  
46 Preposition  
47 Conjunction  
48 Interjections  
49.1 Simple present tense-statements  
49.2 Simple present tense-Negatives  
49.3 Simple present tense- Yes or No Questions  
49.4 Simple present tense-“Wh” questions  
49.5. Simple present tense conversation  
   50 The PAST TENSE  
50.1 Simple Past  tense-statements  
50.2 Simple Past tense-Negatives  
50.3 Simple Past tense- Yes or No Questions  
50.4 Simple Past tense-“Wh” questions  
   51 The FUTURE TENSE  
51.1 Future tense statements  
51.2 Future negatives  
   52 Present Continuous Tense  
52.1 Present Continuous Tense-statements  
52.2 Present Continuous Tense-Negatives  
52.3 Present Continuous Tense-Yes or No questions  
52.4 Present Continuous Tense-Wh questions  
53.1 Present perfect continuous tense-statements  
53.2 Present perfect continuous tense-Negatives  
53.3 Present perfect continuous tense-Yes or no questions  
53.4 Present perfect continuous tense-“Wh” questions  
   54 Structurally similar vocabulary  







Part-1: Effective and Powerful living

  1. Positive thinking

“Keep your thoughts positive, because your thoughts become your words. Keep your words positive because your words become your behavior. Keep your behavior positive because your behavior becomes your habits. Keep your habits positive because your habits become your values. Keep your values positive because your values become your destiny”

— M.K. Gandhi.

Positive thinking plays a great role in your interpersonal relations and your growth and development. No person has control over the acts of God or Nature and no purpose would be served by being negative. Negative ideas drain your energy in un-productive and useless deeds. Further, negative ideas have power to make us poor performers, put us into boundless sorrow and have potential to destroy the human beings completely. All the known examples and history prove that negative ideas led to the destruction and deep melancholy. There is no trace of evidence in history to prove that negative thinking led to happiness or better performance. Hence, be positive in all your deeds and delete negative option from your option box.

The essence of positive thinking can be exemplified by a small story. A king and his minister went to forest for hunting. In their encounter with a tiger in the forest, king lost one of his fingers. When king was feeling bad for losing his finer, minister told him, “O, King! All is well. Whatever happens, it is for your good only”. The king got annoyed over the remarks of his Minister and thrown him into a well nearby and went off from there. On his way, he was caught by the tribals. They decided to sacrifice him for the Kali, their Goddess in the next morning.

Next day, early in the morning, the tribals took the king to the Goddess for sacrifice. The chief priest observed the king and found that the King was devoid of one of his fingers.  He shouted that he is unfit for offering to Goddess as he is incomplete man and asked his people to release him. The king remembered words of wisdom of his minister. He went straight to the well to save his minister. He helped him to come out of the well and expressed his regret for the incident and narrated the things what happened to him. The minister said” “O, King! All is well. Whatever happens, it is for our good only”. The king frowned at minister and said, “Minister, I pushed you into the well, how that is good for you”. The minister smiled and replied, “The tribals did’t sacrifice your highness to the Goddess Kali as your majesty’s body is devoid of one of the fingers. Your highness knows that Goddess requires “poornahuthi” or complete sacrifice. If your highness had not pushed me into the well, I would have been perfect choice for their sacrifice to the Goddess. Hence, your highness action saved my life and action of the tiger saved you my Lord”. The king accepted the proposition of the Minister and there after followed the path of positive thinking.

All of you develop positive thinking for your good and for the good of the society. Positive thinking gives you positive energy which helps you crafting good interpersonal relations; give you peace of mind; helps you to achieve your targets early and makes you a leader. It creates a positive atmosphere for excelling in your field.







  1. Self confidence

Confidence plays an important role in your life. The works done with confidence scores several times better than the works done without it. It is to be noted that most of the in/valuable things in life come free of cost to us. Some of them are enumerated as under.

  1. Birth as a human being itself, not as a lower plant or animal
  2. Love of parents/friends/well wishers
  3. Oxygen which is our lifeline
  4. Self confidence
  5. Positive attitude
  6. Inclination to work hard.
  7. Innovative or out of the box thinking
  8. Common sense
  9. Success

As you may agree that any of the above things need/can’t be purchased. God has given us similar brains and opportunities to achieve whatever we want in our lives. But, you have to put efforts to realize what you want in life. The God will only assist those who are serious in their efforts and manage the above mentioned free things effectively. Self-confidence gives you several qualities which makes you special from others. The self-confidence gives you following qualities-accepting personal responsibility of your deeds; focus and calmness in your work; acting in spite of fears/apprehensions; Develop tolerance for others; Quick to praise and recognition of others contribution; Dignity of labour and respect for your job and standing for things which you believe

There is a small technique how to improve your self-confidence. Aim high and plan your work. Start executing the plan from simple to complex. Initially plan for small things which are easily achievable or in other words set achievable targets. The completion of these easy tasks prepares ground Work and makes you comfortable for doing further work. Keep doing things, makes you tuned to the work, and develop belief in your worth. Your good work would be appreciated or felt jealous by others and that further motivates/ inspires you towards your goal realization.

MS Dhoni is regarded as the best ever Indian skipper of India and nicknamed as “Mr. Cool”. He is known for chasing big scores in cricket. While batting, he plans only for the over and set a target of making 3 runs or 4 runs per over. This is very easy task, he achieves. Realization of these small targets in the initial and middle overs enhances his confidence and keeps his wicket intact. In final overs, he goes offensive to finish the task with renewed confidence.

Confidence gives calmness to focus on the job. Focus gives assured result. Result gives happiness and renews your confidence. Positive result brings praise from others. Praise motivates you further to speed up your work. Speed of the work makes you complete your task or work faster. Finishing your task or realizing your goal early makes you the leader in your society or field. Leading something gives you extreme happiness and makes you a better leader in due course. Hence confidence is the raw material for your happiness and fulfilling life.







  1. 3Ds

3Ds play an important role in life of everybody. They are Desire, Determination and Dedication. Desire is the raw material for your growth/development. It is the starting point in anybody’s journey. Lot of time is taken in fixing the desire on one issue. The mind would be wavering here and there and fully volatile. But a time would come where you take a decision to go ahead with your desire. This is called “Determination”. It is the turning point in your success story. The challenge in the process is Dedication to the chosen path. Dedication is nothing but making focused efforts towards realizing your desire.

It must have been your desire to communicate well in English, develop the traits of Personality and obtain good career counseling. While joining this course, some of your friends/conditions would have discouraged you. But, your determination would have helped you to be here in the class room. Having owned up first 2Ds, it may not be difficult for you to exhibit dedication to shed your fear of speaking English here and start picking up good English for the better communication. If you dedicate your time in these 21 days, there is no doubt that you would become very good speaker in English, learn how to present and conduct yourself in the interviews.  These 21 days would be very memorable days in your journey towards success and excellence in your chosen field.

Your burning desire to speak decent English and dedication towards it shall defeat your hesitation, fear and inertia in speaking English. You may know decent English also. The only problem you may have is inertia to speak English and fear of speaking in public. If this fear of unknown is not controlled, it may engulf your desire/s on this issue. Try to keep your desire very strong and therefore you will achieve what you are intended to learn.


  1. 3Ps

“Purity, Patience and Perseverance are three key principles of success”

—Swami Vivekananda

3Ps are the most essential human virtues to achieve anything in life. They explain the conditions and action points to achieve greater heights in your endeavors.

The first P stands for Purity. Here purity means keep your mind clean and full of positive energy. Your thoughts, heart and actions must be pure. Your mind shall be filled with only one aim which you want to achieve in life and all your vital organs such as heart, kidneys, lungs, muscles, blood etc. shall strive towards achieving your goal. If your goal is to become a Civil Servant, then your mind shall be filled with it only and all your time, energy and actions shall be in the direction of achieving the same. You shall never deviate from your goal till it is achieved.


The second P stands for “Patience”. Patience is the highest human virtue which is the weapon to realize your potential in any field. Unless, you work hard, you would not be able to do justice to the job. If you would like to pass civil service exam and wished to become District Collector [IAS] /Superintend of Police [IPS], Ambassador [IFS] etc., you must give a focused study of at least 10 hours a day. You shall have a patience of a gold miner. While mining the gold, excavating tons and tons of gold ore gives only few grams of gold. If you lack patience, you can’t focus on the work, if you would not focus on any project or work, it is futile to except any result from it. Thus patience plays a predominant role in ensuring the success in your area of interest.


The third P stands for “Perseverance” which means continued efforts for realizing your goal. In your endeavor, you may fail few occasions, but you should continue the work with patience. Failures are common in any effort, but analyze the reasons for the failure and correct the deficiencies and go ahead with your plan. It is said that human mind is very volatile. You remember that no success comes easy and if at all some success comes without hard work, you can’t retain it. Achieving your goal with hard work and great effort gives you a sense of real satisfaction and teaches you the values of life which are essential for happy living. It is pertinent to remember an old adage, “a lazy person would not start any work at all, a non-committal man may start the work, but keep it unfinished, but a committed person starts a work and never sleeps till the goal is reached”.


If you follow 3Ps in your life, there is nothing which you can’t achieve on this Earth.


  1. Understand the fallacy of other’s Criticism

It is said that people are best judges for others mistakes and best lawyers for their own. Many a time people criticize others for different reasons. People criticize out of jealousy, frustration, time-pass, to express displeasure on somebody and to make-believe that he or she is fairer/ efficient / cleaner/ courageous/ smarter/ intelligent/ stronger than the person being criticized. In rare cases, some people try to make constructive criticism, intending to improve your attributes/qualities.

Let us take few examples of criticisms from the recent history. All of us know Padmasri Ghantasala Ventakateswara Rao, the legendary and versatile singer and Music Director of Telugu Film industry. When he went for audition, it was told ”Your voice is unfit”. Had he accepted the criticism, you can imagine the loss to Telugu film industry. Similarly, when Amitabh Bhachchan, the legendary hero of Bollywood, went for audition, it was commented “have you ever seen your face in the mirror”? Had he accepted that comment, the Bollywood would have missed the one and only Big B. You may know the story of a father and son and their usage of donkey in their travel as wished by the villagers.

There would be many critics in your life. Even if you speak English, they may criticize and fear of criticism makes us artificially dumb. Most of the times, the critic himself forget the comment made by him, but you remember it for life. In the process the precious time will go away from you. The correct approach would be, you may listen to anybody, but take your own decision on any issue. What is correct for the critic may not be applicable for you at all.  Hence, give a scant regard to the mindless and general criticism. If you are dancing to the tunes of somebody, they would keep on singing some nonsense. Sing your song and dance to your tunes.

If you keep speaking English whether right or wrong, you will become an expert in speaking English. The same person who is criticizing today will appreciate or get mesmerized on your English skills in due course.   Have a determination to take criticism in a positive way and get energized for your good. But if somebody corrects your English, thank him or her and ask him or her to teach you further. Let us be a good learner.


  1. Aim High

To aim high is the call of our former President and missile man of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam towards the Youth. Let us understand the concept of aiming high. Identify your core competence and accordingly chose your goal. You may need to choose one among the following popular career options- Politics, Judiciary, Bureaucracy, Business or Industries, Professions like Engineers, Doctors, chartered Accountants , architects, teaching, etc.

If your aim is Politics, aim to become PM/CM  which are highest political offices in India; if your path is Judiciary, aim to become a Judge of Supreme Court and High Courts; if your chosen road is bureaucracy,  go for Civil Services; and so on. In simple words, aim for the top position in a particular category and work towards realizing your goal. As you know, nothing is impossible. Theoretically all human beings are born with same Intelligent Quotient [I.Q]. It is to be noted that only human beings are competing for the various positions and there are no superior aliens in the race. Your aim is realizable, if you master the rules of the game and play it correctly.

Let us take one example to explain the meaning and benefits of “Aiming high”. If your passion is to work as police, the possibilities for direct recruitments are at the levels of Constable[s], Sub-Inspector[s], SI, Deputy Superintendent of Police, DSP and Indian Police Service, IPS. The qualification for the post of constable is Intermediate, but now most of the aspirants are graduates only. The qualification for SI [Special recruitment by APPSC], DSP [Group-I] and IPS [Union Public Service Commission] is Graduation in any discipline. Let us take two graduates Prasad and Murthy became a SI and an IPS on 1.1.2001. Prasad got promotion as a CI in 2008, a DSP in 2016 and a Superintend of Police in 2028. Thus, Prasad would reach the initial recruitment stage of Murthy in 2028. Prasad by opting to become SI in 2001 may become SP or district police head in approximately 28 years of time. Whereas Murthy by opting for civil services became an IPS directly in 2001 and will reach to the stage of Addl. DGP in 2028.  Thus Murthy gained almost 28 years at the starting of his career itself and overall gain is about 56 years. His work experience has been as a top boss rather than in the lower cadre in Police force. This is the benefit of aiming high and working hard at the starting of career.

  1. Goal setting and Goal realization

The goal setting is very important decision in your life. It is a process of fixing your future and therefore extreme care to be taken while doing so. You should clearly specify to yourself what you are going to be in future. You must have clarity on the end goal of yours and means to achieve it. Always set a practicable and actionable target and your goal shall not be fancy or on the basis of fantasy. It is to be remembered always that setting a goal is only a starting point of your travel on the path and your continuous journey involving your untiring efforts would land you on your cherished position.

In Hindu mythology, we have several examples describing the ways of achieving the goals set. One such example is the process given by King of Sri Lanka, Ravan.      Ravan was a man of letters and regarded as an expert in Administration. Towards the end of the war in Sri Lanka, Ram sent his brother, Lakshman to learn art of administration and method of achieving goals from Ravan. On the directions of Lord Rama, Lakshman approached Ravan and requested him to teach him the essence of goal realization. The essence of Ravan’s lecture to Lakshman can be summarized as under

  • When you make a plan to do something, do it before your mind changes
  • Aim your target 10 times bigger than what it is and prepare yourself to achieve the inflated target set by you.
  • Your growth shall not harm the society

If your target is to achieve civil services, you must know the syllabus, possess or develop good communication and writing skills, knowledge on various subjects, probing mind to know the things and passion for public service and interest to work with the people. Make a goal very early in the career, at least when you are in the  first year of graduation and keep making efforts to make yourself tuned to the requirements of UPSC.  You must be prepared fully before you go for coaching or sit for exclusive preparation. Prepare to face marathon rather than sprint or short running. If the plan doesn’t work, change the plan, but not the goal. Locks are never manufactured without a key. Similarly, God never gives problems without solutions. Only you need to have patience and perseverance to unlock them.


  1. Focus/concentration and up-dation is the key to Success

If at all there is one word in any language which is so powerful and make you best anywhere and in any field, that is “Focus” or “Concentration” in English, “drishti” in Sanskrit and  “Ekhagratha” in Telgugu.  The success and continued development is assured to you if you focus on your job and update the knowledge related to it. If you are committed to your job, the entire world/God would conspire to help you to reach your goal.

The best example or case point here is the story of Prince Arjun in Mahabharata. At young age, Arjun was like any other princes, but the only one difference; he had focus on the archery. That was the reason why he was able to see the eye of the bird hiding in a tree. This quality in Arjun was spotted by his guru, Drona. He was fond of Arjun’s concentration and treated him very special among his disciples. He taught him the special techniques in the archery.

One day Arjun was taking supper and suddenly lights were off. However, he finished his supper. A splash of idea entered his mind. He started practicing archery in darkness and become expert in releasing arrows with accuracy in darkness. While practicing archery with right hand, he got an idea of trying with left hand and finally became successful with left hand also. For this reason, Arjun has been also referred to as “Savyasaachi” or in simple words, ambidextrous. He could win Draupathi, just by his archery acumen.

The budding talent in Prince Arjun was spotted by God, Sri Krishna. He wanted to help him. Expecting request from Lord Agni to help him in consuming “Khandava Forest”, Lord Sri Krishna took Arjun to that area without taking any arms. There, on receiving request to help Agni from him, Krishna tactfully said, they were not carrying any arms to help him. The Agni gave the “Gandeevam” and inexhaustible quiver to Arjun and “Sudarshana chakra” to Lord Sri Krishna and requested them to help him in burning the Khandava forest. Thus, Lord Sri Krishna got Arjun, the Gandeevam, an unbreakable bow which has played a great role in the life of Arjun, especially in Mahabarata battle.

In spite of achieving great heights and achievements in his field, Arjun never lost his focus in his field and kept on updating his knowledge. He did great “tapas” or penance towards Lord Shiva and obtained the great “Pasupatastra” or the weapon of mass destruction and made himself unparallel to anybody of his times.

You may focus in your field and develop core competence to become unparallel and can live like a legend in your life.


  1. Realize yourself

The birth as a human being is the best anybody can have. Having taken birth as a human being, we have to realize the value and do the things in commensurate to its status. To realize this, listen to this, real time incident happened in Thailand. As you know, the main religion in Thailand is Buddhism.

The Buddhists in Thailand were taking a gigantic clay Buddha statue for procession. The procession was stopped due to rains. The statue was covered with the help of raised tent. Due to heavy rain, drops of water were trickled down on the statue. During the night time, the chief monk has found that a stream of light emanating from the tent.  He went inside the tent and found that statue is the source of light. He went nearer, scratched a bit and found a golden statue under the clay. Then he realized that the original golden Buddha was covered by clay to disguise it as a clay statue and thereby prevent enemies from taking away the God’s statue earlier. The sudden discovery of gold statue of God made them happy. What we should learn from this?

In the Indian Yogic perspective, humans are considered as “Jivatma” or lower soul which came from Supreme Soul, “Paramatma” and therefore the human gets perfection first by realizing that he is God, “Aham Brahmhasmi”. This is like detection of Golden Buddha inside clay Buddha which is shining like a Sun which will melt away the darkness of ignorance.

A simple example is given for the purpose of clarity. Six-pack or eight packs is inherent in every man. Those who follow certain procedure and exercise the body would be able to realize the 6 or 8 pack. Others may not be able to achieve similar status. Most of the hard working villagers have these packs. Similarly, every human is being gold inside, one has to realize it.

It is scientifically estimated that an adult human being value is Rs.25 crores equal to value of 83 kg gold in monetary terms. In view of this, you shall aim high and do greater things in life. Otherwise, it would be demeaning your crores worth of body. For example if you own a house for Rs. 2 crores and if it fetches Rs.1000/- rent per month, what would you feel? Certainly, you feel disgusted. If Indian cricket team fails to make 250 runs in a first batting in a world cup match, you feel disgusted and even attack the houses of the batsmen responsible for the low score. Let us take the same sense of responsibility on us. Let us realize our value and try to aim high and achieve it with hard/smart work.


  1. Skill yourself

Nature is highly democratic. It treats all the living creatures with un-believable equality. It gives equal access to growth irrespective of your age, sex, status, religion etc. For example, the Sun, Moon, Air, Time etc. All the human beings have equal access to them. We know that some persons in spite of having money, material at their disposal failed to make any headway in life. At the same time, there are some persons who started from scratch and achieved celebrity status.

The tools or resources are important. But, the person’s skill in using the tools/ resources and extracting result is the much more important factor in life. A skilful person can alone extract melodious tunes from the hollowness of a flute. Similarly, your “take home” from the Sea or Ocean depends on your skill. A man who doesn’t know swimming can take home only the pebbles on the shore. A person, who knows swimming and can walk for a distance in the water, will be able to collect seaweeds which can be used as a vegetable. A skilled person, who can dive into the sea and stay underwater for a while, can bring pearls. A further skilled person who can dive into the sea and stay there for some time can bring corals, precious stones. A further skilled man who can dive into the deep ocean can bring gold and un-measurable treasure.

Your skill determines your altitude in the society. Your growth depends on whether you are non-skilled, semiskilled or well skilled. Arise! Acquire skill set! Achieve! Learn your position or status vis-a-vis your aims and its requirements. Acquire the skills required and achieve your aim with complete dedication. If you are able to use time, energy and other tools skillfully in your own route or field, the success is assured.


If you are skillful ad innovative, you can create wonders. Successful people use common things differently and skillfully. Read this excellent example of innovative thinking, using the deaf and dumb people skillfully for the good of all the stake holders. In New Delhi, one young unemployed youth saw some deaf person delivering a packet of food in a house. He got a brilliant idea and immediately recruited several deaf and dumb people for his newly started business of courier service. His business brilliance is that for serving a courier on somebody, a person is neither required to speak nor listen. The cost of the project was very less as he had to shell out very less salaries to his deaf and dumb employees. On the other hand, his physically challenged employees are very happy to stand on their own legs.  Within a short span of time, the business grown into multimillion company. This is the story of 2011.

Skill is money and skill can be acquired by knowledge and practice. You are valued by your skill. Hence, give more importance to equip yourself with skills such as communication skills, expertise in your own field, managerial skills etc.


  1. Hard work is the Key

Success requires 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration or hard work. You should know the trick of working hard. You see most of the villagers and successful people never stay idle. They can’t live without doing any work. Even aged people at their eighties and nineties work. Thanks to the hard working habit. Hard work keeps your body and mind active and healthy and makes you enjoy life without any discomforts/diseases. And above all, give you a sense of pride and identity in the society. If you do smart work, coupling hard work with smart ideas, you will be heading the field where you are operating. Read this beautiful story on the essence and purpose of hard work which was learnt in a hard way.

There was a farmer in an Indian village. He had four sons. To his ill-luck, all of them were lazy and time-passers. They never went to school properly. They neither studied nor working in the field. They were shameless to live on their father’s hard work. The farmer told them several times to learn the art of working hard and come up in life. He used to repent “How these lazy people live if I die”? I want my sons to have a better quality life than me and live a dignified life in the society. They are not good at education. At least they should work to get their livelihood. How long I live on this Earth, to take care of them? I’m getting weak and aged”. Under these circumstances, the farmer’s sixth sense told, that he would not live longer. He called his four sons to his bed and told them. “My sons, I have kept a treasure box in our field which contains lot of gold and diamonds. But, I have lost the sight of the place where I have kept the box. All of you dig the land and share it equally. This is my last wish and you must fulfill”. Having said so, the farmer collapsed on his bed.

The four sons, after completing the last rites of their father, got motivated to get the treasure box and enjoy life. They didn’t want to engage labour for obvious reasons and started digging the land on their own. After strenuous hard work for 2 months, they found a wooden box in the land. They eagerly opened it to see gold and diamonds in it. To their surprise, they found a piece of paper saying “My dear sons, now you have learnt the art of working hard. Put the same labour in the land, you will get the gold”. They realized their mistake and followed their father’s advice and lived happily thereafter on their own industry. Hard work/smart work is the key to happy and contented life.


  1. Difficulties are to better you, not to batter you

The hard/unbearable situations test your ability to withstand the pressures of life and prepare you for solving complex problems in life. The difficulties, hard situations and scolding of parents /teachers/well-wishers are only to make you to go on the right path and live the life with dignity and happiness. To exemplify this, let us see how a wild animal, giraffe prepares its baby to the living in forest.

You know the height of the giraffe. It gives birth to its baby in a standing posture. The baby, just after falling from her mother’s back, is expected to stand within seconds. If it doesn’t, the mother gives a hard kick to make it 2 rounds in the air and the baby is expected to stand at least now. If it does, the mother starts the second round of kicking. This time the kick is stronger and makes the baby to make 3 rounds in the air and then it is expected to stand again on the ground.  If this is done, the final kick is given by the mother giraffe with much more force. This time, just after falling on the ground, the baby is expected to run. If it doesn’t, kicking continues, till it runs.

The intention of the mother giraffe is not to punish the baby. It is a survival technique in the forest or grassland. Any laxity in the matter makes the baby prey to the waiting tigers, lions, wolves and even wild dogs. Thus, the kicks are required to prepare the baby for the ground realities from its hitherto safest place, the mother’s womb. The giraffe calf is precocious and starts running along with its mother immediately, once its inertia is removed by her mother’s kicks.

There is no doubt that giving kicks to baby appears to be very harsh, but that is done to save its precious life first and then make its life happy in the grassland. Similarly, all the difficulties those come across to you in your life are raw materials to make you stronger. And further, prepares you to face further difficulties as you progress in your life. Most of us want peaceful life without any ups and downs. In the angiogram or recordings of heart beat always have troughs and peaks. When angiogram becomes flat, the person ceases to exist. We expect lot of twists and turns in the life of a hero in a movie and such a movie only perform well at box office. The heroism grows proportionately to the difficulties he overcame, smartness he shows in solving the problems, difficult fights and dances etc. The latest trend is that hero has to entertain you fully, despite his problems in the story.

Your family and society expects similar actions from you. Don’t lose heart on the onset of the difficulties. Face them with self-confidence and understanding that difficult situations make you stronger and their purpose is to better you, not to batter you. You are the hero of your movie and it is in your hands to make it a hit movie or a failure one. If you want your movie to be a hit, prepare for working hard, solving difficult problems, facing failures and overcoming them with patience and confidence.


  1. Cruelty is the order of the Nature

Most of us take credit for our achievements and blame others for our failures. People blame society, parents, circumstances, poverty and other conditions for their failures. This can’t be untrue to some extent. Sometimes, the society exerts a great influence on the individuals and apparently appears to be very cruel and merciless. But, it equally provides protection, if the individual is  Let us read an excellent story to exemplify this fact to you.

Once upon a time, a crocodile was entangled in a net laid by the hunter. It saw a boy passing by along the route and sought his help in letting it free from the net. The boy refused to do so and said to crocodile “You are a dangerous creature. If I let you free, you will kill me”. The crocodile feigned ignorance and said to boy “No little boy. I will be grateful to you if you let me free. I’m very a faithful animal. Please remove me from net and save my life. You will change your opinion after seeing me out of the net”. The boy somehow got convinced and felt pity on the crocodile and freed it from the shackles.

In a split of a second, the crocodile caught the leg of the boy. The boy screamed “This is unfair. You are a liar”.  The crocodile coolly said”this is the order of the nature”.  The boy didn’t believe himself. He did not agree for the statement made by the crocodile. Then, the crocodile said, “let us call a witness and check the veracity of my statement”. The boy agreed for the proposal and asked a bird on the tree “O bird, please tell me, is it that society is full of treachery, backstabbing and unfairness?” The bird on the tree replied “Yes. Absolutely right. Take my case. My investment in eggs/chicks is destroyed by snakes, monkeys and worst by treacherous human beings. This is the order of the nature”

The boy said to crocodile “the bird appears to be biased against humans, let us ask some other witness”. He asked a donkey passing by “O donkey, the crocodile is saying that the society is full of treachery, backstabbing and unfairness? Do you agree with it”.  The donkey on the road replied “Yes. He is right. My entire life was spent in carrying the clothes for my boss and now I have become old and he left me out in the forest, just to become a prey to some hungry carnivore. This is the order of the nature”

The boy was paining under silence. He requested crocodile to go for one more witness. Then he saw a rabbit and asked it “O rabbit, please tell me whether the entire world is bad to live in?”. The rabbit replied “it is very difficult to say yes or no to this query. Let us sit and discuss to arrive at a plausible solution”. The crocodile frowned at  the rabbit with suspicious looks and said “No rabbit. You are trying to help the boy to escape from me in the guise of a dialogue”. The rabbit told the crocodile “You are cowardice. Will it be possible for the boy to escape from your powerful tail? It is humanly impossible to escape from you”. The crocodile got elated by the lavish praise showered by the rabbit and left the boy and trying to sit for discussion. The rabbit shouted at the boy “Boy, escape. Run away from crocodile”. The boy did so. The crocodile roared “this is unfair rabbit. You have spoiled by food”. The rabbit said “this is the order of the nature”. The rabbit further looked at the boy and said “O boy! Go to village and bring people and first get the crocodile killed”. The crocodile cried “You treacherous rabbit. Go to hell out of here. This is doubly unfair”. The boy went to village, brought people and got the crocodile killed. He wanted to thank the rabbit which saved his life. He turned towards the rabbit and to his shock found that rabbit was being devoured by the dog which accompanied the villagers. The boy said loudly “this is the order of the nature”.

The society and circumstances tests your ability to withstand the pressure and pulls of the life. If you are able to sustain the pressures, control the temptations and go on the path of success, the same society accepts you as a leader and respects you. Stop blaming others for your state of affairs and start taking responsibility for your state of affairs. This gives a proper framework for taking correcting measures such as capacity building and realizing your goal. Capacity built-up starts once you stop blaming others and taking measures to overcome the weaknesses. Once you do this, the entire society, like rabbit and villages in the above story will help you in reaching your goal.


  1. Learn from the Nature and practice in life

Our Nature is our first teacher. The first lesson we can learn from nature is Regularity. All the agents of nature, the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Tides, follow a rhythmic regularity. We can be regular in doing things and shall never postpone.  In the nature, the stronger ones flourish and the weaker ones would perish. There exists a struggle for existence. Hence, you should have a strong mind and personality to face and win over the challenges. Try to develop positive qualities such as self-confidence, competence, inclination to work, zeal to travel an extra-mile when others are fatigued. These qualities help you to reach a top stage and make you sustain there in that stage.

You can learn so much from the struggle of a seed. The tiny seed knows that in order to grow, it needed to be dropped in dirt, covered in darkness, and struggle to reach the light. The intention of the farmer or planter is to get a good crop and make livelihood or money out of it. The intention of the seed is to grow into a tree or plant and produce several seeds. The seed knows its ultimate as well as immediate duties. It germinates underground and gently starts pushing the earth above. The mud above the seed would not easily yield. The sapling keeps on putting pressure from the ground against the gravity and the pressure becomes so much, the ground has to leave a crack to allow seedling to access to surface and sunlight. Break in earth made by one seed/sapling loosen the soil and helps other saplings to come out of the earth easily.

As stated above, there is a convergence of ideas in the mind of a farmer as well as seed. That is the reason result is certain to happen. The ideas in your mind can be regarded as seed. In order to convert your desire or idea into reality, you have to make consistent efforts against all the odds. You may encounter different problems, face them with courage. Acquire skill set to solve problems on your path and continue the journey towards your goal. If you follow these things, you will reach your desired status or position in the society. Having achieved your goal, you can help other persons/peers in realizing their goals.


  1. Be a trend setter

There are two kinds of people, trend setters and trend followers. If you want to be trend follower, there is no competition and you can achieve that status without doing anything. But, if you want to be a trend setter, you are required to be different from others in dealing things. You shall be innovative. So many people watched apple falling from the tree and they just collected or observed it. Newton innovatively thought why it was falling and why it was not flying? That led to discovery of “gravity of earth”. The great youth icon and spiritual master of India, Vivekananda swami, by addressing the audience as “sisters and brothers of America” at congregation of world religions in America itself was an innovation and it had enthralled all the Americans. Similarly, Gandhiji’s weapons of Freedom movement “Ahimsa and Satyagraha” were proved very novel at that point of time. The example of recruiting deaf and dumb by a young entrepreneur at Delhi which is very novel idea made him a millionaire. [Given elsewhere in this book]

Hope that you must have understood the concept of trend setting. Now let us see the qualities of a trend setter. The ideas of trend setter shall be innovative; need to walk on a new path and face all the difficulties; pioneer in laying new road; resistance and resilient to criticism and discouragement; strong will power and perseverance till achieving the intended objective and brand building.

When you aim high, the trend followers may discourage you. Say for example, the idea of a young girl or a boy from a village aspiring to become civil servant such as IAS, IPS or IRS etc. may be a trend setting one in that village. The villagers may not be able to believe it. But, if you want to be a trend setter, go with your ideas, achieve the target and lay a new path of glory. The same villagers now follow the trend set by you and send their own son or daughter to follow your foot steps.

Whether your aim is Civil services, business or any of your chosen field, the first quality required is good communication skills. You should be proactive in getting this compulsory skill at the earliest. Then acquire skills required to implement your novel idea. If the glanced looks or non-serious criticism of somebody deter you to speak English, you can’t go on your path of success. If you continue your work, the same critic will hug you and request your help also. Hence, develop a quest for success in an innovative way. You will be Queen or King in your chosen path. Remember that good communication skills are a means in your success, but not success itself. Hence, keep your ultimate objective in mind and develop all skill-set to achieve your objective in a reasonable time.



  1. Fear Management

FEAR is defined as Fantasized Experiences Appearing Real. That means we fear on something which is non-existence now. If you have a fear of speaking English, the fear is within and really it is non-existing. As per several surveys on fear, the top most fears are Public speaking; death; Insecurity and Fear of rejection.

Public Speaking: When you are asked to speak first time on stage, you feel nervous. The reasons could be many- you never spoke public so far; fear of uncertain outcome of your speech, fear of rejection etc. Most of us always in the trap of looking good to people. We give less priority to feel good and be good to ourselves.  You have to prioritize that you should feel good first, then being good to yourself and then try to look good to others. If you do this, superb speech would flow from your mouth. Don’t get caught up in the mire of looking good to people.

First, stand before a mirror and speak out what you want to say in the meeting, correct mistakes if any, practice if necessary and then go for the actual speaking. It is assured that your speech would be very good and otherwise also, it is a starting point and you have a right or opportunities to improve in due course. You know, practice makes man perfect.

Fear of death: Death is not an enemy of life and part and parcel of the nature’s cycle. It is like changing names or change of form of energy as described by law of Thermodynamics. As told in Gita by Lord Sri Krishna, death is a constant affair, you take birth as an infant, die as an infant and take birth as a boy; die as a boy and take birth as a youth and so on. Trust the kindness of God who has created milk before the child is born. Who knows? He must be created some better world for those who leaving this world. Further, we don’t have control over the death and then why to fear it. Work without fear and you will be happier and do the things in right way.

Insecurity: What is security in your view? When do you feel secure? The poor have problem of limited resources, but no fear of theft. The rich have insecurity of their money, assets and fear of taxation. Greatness lies in enjoying what you have and work on what you don’t have. Past is beyond your reach, present is yours and future is mystery. Work as if you are going to die tomorrow and learn as if you are going to live forever-MK Gandhi. Love the change, love the insecurity. Enjoy the path as a pedestrian, rider of by-cycle, motor bike, and owner of a car or a bigger car, Helicopter etc. If you are feeling insecure and not working, you will remain in-secured. But if work hard on your desires, you will surely get it.

Fear of rejection: Nobody can reject you unless you reject yourself or give away your self-respect. Saying no to your request is not a rejection. It is just saying “no” only. Rejection may be on non-palatable presentation of facts or wrong selection of target. The efficient sales man would sell a comb to a bald person. The successful entrepreneur knows the real target of his products. The bald person may not require a comb, but his family members do need it. Even otherwise, the success rate in marketing can never be 100%. Only a few people buy goods which are offered by sales man. Even then he would achieve his or her target. It is to be noted that the success rate of catching prey by a tiger is just 7%. That means it fails in 93% times. But, every failure strengthens   it and it learns to enhance its success rate next time.

Fear lies in your mind, not in reality. The fear can be managed by 4Es. First, “experience” the fear of public speaking or any other fear. The second one is “explore” the fear and third one “enjoy” the fear. The last and the best one is “Educate” yourself on the fear. Once, you are educated, the fear would disappear from your mind as it is really not in existence.


  1. Time Management

Time is highly democratic. It gives equal space for each and every person on this Earth. The difference lies in its utilization. Some of the professionals, like lawyers and chartered Accountants charge their clients on an hourly basis. For example an advocate appearing in the Supreme Court charges lakhs of rupees per hour whether the case is heard or not.  “Time is money, but money can’t buy time”.  We can’t get back a second even with billions of rupees in hand. That is the value of time.

Time is regarded as a cunning thief who always steals your time without you are being aware of it. By the time you realize, it would be too late. Hence realize the value of time early in life. Try to set the goal also early in life and keep working on it during holidays and free time in academics. This approach saves lots of time and prepares you well for the target set.

Time is precious and valuable. But, life is invaluable. It is one way journey. You will never travel the same route again. Hence, try to optimize your time utilization towards your goal and other important things in life. Give your body physical exercise @ 45 minutes a day; have a sound sleep of 6 to 7 hours; 10 to 12 hours of efforts towards your main goal and remaining time spend on parents/friends/relatives etc. Support from family and friends save your time, provide congenial atmosphere for your time optimization and early realization of your goal.

There is one way of saving time which is a little bit difficult to follow, but works like a tonic if you can follow. This is taking out sometime in the academics to focus on your life ambition. If your ambition is to become a civil servant or a bank PO or some other Govt. post, you can go for coaching in the weekends or during summer holidays and dedicate 1 or 2 two hours daily without compromising your academics. This makes you settle very early in life. If your life ambition is settling in some business or profession, join the same line of business/profession as an employee for weekends or summer holidays, even for low or without salary to gain experience. This will go a long way in laying firm foundation for your future empire. Later, you can work 3 to 5 years as an employee in the same line of business, earn capital and expertise and then start your own business.

One of the most stupendous norms of time management is spending quality time in all spheres of your work. During study hours, focus on studies; while playing play happily; while spending time with parents, enjoy it fully; while eating, relish it; and so on. Never mix up things and waste time. Some people have tendency of wasting precious time on non-productive and useless deeds.

Listen to a beautiful short story. Two monks were returning to their monastery after attending a seminar on “Mind Management”. It was a rainy day. On their way, they found a girl with a beautiful dress hesitating to cross a water pit, created on the road, by the collections of rain water. The older monk got pity with her and lifted her off the pit and went on his way. The young monk maintained stony silence till they reach their monastery. Once they reached their destination, the younger monk has asked the older one, “Sir, we are monks and not supposed to touch ladies. Why did you lifted that girl and kept on the other side?”. The older monk smiled and said “My dear son, I left that girl there itself and you carried her to the monastery”.

Time is precious. Utilize it productive and quality use. Remember that TIME and TIDE wait for nobody whether you utilize or waste it. It is your duty to utilize them for your good.


  1. Qualities of a winner and a loser.
  Winner Loser
1 Tons of confidence Lack of confidence
2 Untiring and continuous efforts Haphazard and lazy efforts
3 Use common sense profusely Hardly uses common sense
4 Work with passion Work for the sake of working
5 View problems as opportunities & get strengthened by overcoming them View problems as obstacles & blame others as harbingers of his or her problems
6 Positive attitude. Willing to put an extra step always, even after strenuous work Pessimistic attitude. Tries to complain of work and generally postpone things
7 Stay light and focused Do too many un-productive things at a time
8 Work in combinations of fast/ medium/slow based on the situations in a continuous manner Either too fast or too slow without any consistency
9 See target as only  means See target as the end in itself.
10 Gets maximum enjoyment in achieving the targets and by keeping the word Want to enjoy life and lead it its space at the cost of commitments and postponement of targets


Winner always ready to work an extra hour or run an extra mile when all are fatigued and stopped. The effort to put/run an extra hour or mile determines winning or losing and that is the important difference between a winner and a loser.


  1. Our expectation from you
  • Speak English for 30 minutes every day or an average 15 hours in a month.
  • Listen or watch English news 30 minutes every day or 15 hours in month.
  • Read an English newspaper daily and read 2 English novels in a year
  • Write one page of English on any topic of your choice in a week
  • Try to inculcate good qualities and manage your personality wisely
  • Having set your goal, start acquiring skills required for its realization
  • See our help in further capacity building if required. In your endeavor, we are willing play a role like Drona or Lord Sri Krishna, as in the life of Prince Arjun.


Our Message

Have a vision. Try to acquire skill-set required for your goal and vision. Work incrementally towards your goal. Let us take a sloka from Ramayan to exemplify the qualities of a successful person.

“Yasya  thvethaani  chathvaari  vaanarendra  yathaa  thava |
Dhruthir Drushtir Mathir Daakshyam  sa  karmasu  na  seedathi” ||                                                                                                              

While Lord Hanuma was flying over the ocean to Lanka, he killed a demoness called Simhika. As Simhika fell down dead, all the Seers, Devas and Gandharvas praised him for killing a mighty creature and told him “O Lord Hanuma! Now accomplish your task without hindrance .He who possess like you, the four qualities of DHRUTHI (courage), DRUSHTI (vision), MATHI (intelligence) and DAAKSHYAM (skills) never fail in his undertakings/endeavors”

The four qualities of a winner described above are elaborated as under:

  • Dhruthi = Courage, Braveness, Firmness
  • Drushti = Vision, Foresight
  • Mathi = Intelligence, Intellect
  • Daakshyam = Skills

A person who possesses the above four qualities will never fails in his/her endeavors /tasks. These four qualities should be exhibited by everybody in order to accomplish any task and become successful.


Wish you best of luck for your successful life. Once you settle in life, pay back something to society


Yours friendly





Joint Commissioner of Income-Tax, Mumbai and

Course Designer and Chief Advisor and

PINAKA, A Society for People’s Empowerment, Tirupati.















Hi, good morning everybody,

I would like to introduce myself. My name is —————————————- I am studying ————————— at ——————-. I was born and brought up at ————————.         My father’s name is ———————————– .  He is a ——————————– . My mother’s name is —————————— and she is a ————————–.  I have one brother and one sister. His/ Her name is ————————-. He/She is in ——————————–school/college at ——————.  I am ————— years old. My birthday falls on ————–. I’m good at Telugu, Hindi and English languages. I love English very much. I hate eve teasing, dowry system and child marriages. My role model is ————–. I like sweets/chocolates/ice-creams. My strength is discipline and honesty. My weakness is being short-tempered. I love my parents. I respect my teachers and elders. I follow our national leaders and I guide my juniors. My favorite hero is ————————- and heroine is ————————-. My best friend is —————————–.  My hobbies are playing games, watching TV, reading magazines and singing songs. My life ambition is to become an IAS/IPS/IRS/architect/engineer. Thank you for patient hearing.


Templates or useful phrases for introducing oneself:

Wishes: Good morning/good afternoon/ good evening/ hello/ hi

Respected sir and my dear friends…I am happy to/ I am delighted to/ I am glad to/ I                                        am privileged to…

Name: My name is……../ This is…/ I am…..          
Family: I am the son of/ my father’s name is/ my father is Mr…/ He is a…./ My mother is a… I have a small family/micro family/mine is a small family/ I have a big family/joint family/mine is a joint family/my family consists of…./my family members are/my family includes…/ I am the youngest in my family/ I am the only son/ daughter…
Profession: I am doing/ I am studying/ I am pursuing/ I did…in the year/ I have done….recently/ I am a graduate/ prost graduate from../ I am working for/ I am working with/ I am doing a job/ I have been working as/ I have been working for/ since
Location: I am living/ I am residing/ I am staying/ I hail from/ I belong to/ I am a native of/ I come from….Which is famous for….
Hobbies: My hobby is/ my hobbies are/I love playing/ I am very fond of eating/I feel pleasure in drinking/in my leisure time I watch TV/ I play chess/ I read books
Habits: My habit is having tea twice a day/watching TV /playing cricket/meeting friends in the evening/cracking jokes/telling lies/teasing friends/browsing net
Achievements: I won a prize when I was in…/I could successfully complete my…/ I was the captain of my team when I was in…/ I could become…/ I could participate in../I was the representative of my class/college when I was in…/ I could get the appreciation from… for my outstanding performance in…
Life aim: I want to/ wish to/would like to become…/ I would like to see myself in the position of…/ I would like to achieve…/ I would like to be a…/ I would like to excel in the field of…/ I have a passion to become…./ I have a dream of achieving…
Favorite persons: My favorite hero is…/ I am the fan of…because…/my favorite heroine is…/my favorite villain is …/my favorite director…/my favorite politician../ My favorite singer  is…/My favorite writer is…/ My favorite teacher is…. because…
Role model: My ideal person is…because…/ My role model is…because…/I adore the person Mr….because…/ I am the follower of…because
Favorite things: I like the movie…because…/ I like the book because…/ my favorite place is…because…/my favorite color is….because….
My nature  : I am soft spoken/ I am punctual/ I am disciplined/ I am dedicated/ I am hard working/ I am sincere/ I am self-motivated/ I am honest/ I am assertive/ I am enthusiastic/ I am positive/ I am confident/ I am wise/ I am self-controlled/ I am flexible/ I am expressive
Strengths   :  I am good at…/I am an expert at…/I am the best at…/ I can communicate well / I can control my emotions/ I can handle the crises easily/ I can adopt myself to any new environment easily/ I can get along with people easily/ I can accept new challenges/ I can take any responsibility when required/ I can learn new things easily/ I can work alone or in a team at the same comfort
Me and my English: I studied in the school…/ I studied in the college…/ I tried to learn English but…/now I am able to ….but I am unable to…/ I want to develop/ I want to improve/I want to brush up/ I want to polish/ I want to be…/ I want to get command over… I would like to see myself as a….  
Commitment: Now I am serious about/…/ I have decided to …/ I am committed to…/ I am going to…
Appeal: I need your cooperation/support/ encouragement/ request you all, please…/ I am expecting your support/ help/ cooperation    
Why the Pinaka? I joined Pinaka/ I chose Pinaka/ I got admitted into Pinaka/ I have become a student of……./ I came to Pinaka/ I selected Pinaka/ I preferred Pinaka/ Now I am here before you all in this course because…
Gratitude: I sincerely thank you all for giving me this chance/listening to my speech/cooperating with me/encouraging me

Home work:

  1. Write some more information about yourself?


  1. Self Introduction to a Stranger
Rohan Hello, excuse me.
Pavani Hi! What can I do for you?
Rohan May I please know your name and native place?
Pavani Yes, but why?
Rohan I think we know each other.
Pavani Is it so? I’m Pavani. I am pursuing B.Sc., in SG Degree College, Piler. I hail from Kallur. What about you? When did we meet earlier?
Rohan My name is Rohan and I hail from Pulicherla. I am studying MA in SV University, Tirupati. I think we met before.
Pavani I never know anybody from Pulicherla. Anyhow, nice meeting you.
Rohan Glad/nice to meet you too.
Pavani Bye
Rohan Bye bye..

Home work:

  1. Write a dialogue between a stranger and you?




Sita Hi Ram, how are you? Who is this?
Ram Hello Sita, I’m fine. How are you? He is Mr. Rohith. He is my schoolmate and a close friend.
Sita You told me about Rohith earlier. Why didn’t he join with you in academics after schooling?
Ram Sita, he is very sharp. He got a seat in polytechnic after 10th..Thereafter, he finished his B.Tech and now is working for TCS, as a programmer.
Sita Oh, great. What else?
Ram Rohith is a very good singer. He used to get all prizes in singing. He was the  only “blue-eyed boy” in our school.
Sita What about his family?
Ram His parents are in the village and engaged in farming. He partcipates in agricultural activities whenever he goes to his village. He took me several times to his village. I never forget the hospitality of his parents.
Sita Nice to meet you Mr. Rohith. Nice to know so many good things about you. Bye
Ram and Rohith Bye.

Home work:

  1. You introduce another friend to your friend?


A model introduction:

Hi good morning everybody,

It’s my pride and pleasure to   speak about my best friend.   His/Her name   is —————————-. He/She was born and brought up at ——————————–. His/Her father’s name is —————————— and he is a farmer.  His/Her mother’s name is ——————. She is a ——————- .He/ She is —— years old. His/Her birthday falls on —————— every year.  He is doing first year B.Com in ———————college at ———————————-. He/she is good at Telugu, Hindi & English Languages. Though he is poor he is honest. He is kind and generous. He gives top most priority to our friendship. He likes sweets and fruits very much. He hates politics and corruption. His hobbies are playing games, listening to music and dancing. His role model is also ————–. His strength is honesty and discipline. His weakness is being over-confident. He is a polite student. He loves his family. He respects his teachers and elders. Following our national leaders, he guides his juniors. His life ambition is to become a civil servant/Judge/Politician.  I am proud to be a friend of —————. Thank you.

Home work:

  1. You introduce your best friend?


Template for describing different people, places and things

Character Active aggressive, ambitious, arrogant, assertive, creative, fickle, flaky, pleasant, good tempered, good natured, easy going, bad tempered, ill natured, friendly, sociable, out spoken, unfriendly, hostile, unsociable, independent, matured, week, reliable, trust worthy, honest, sensible, unpredictable, ambitious, hard-working, energetic, careless, lazy, disciplined, organized, careful, undisciplined, disorganized, attentive, self-confident, shy, timid, modest, humble, stubborn, touchy, sensitive, humorous, interesting, generous, unselfish, kind hearted, greedy, crazy, weird.
Food Deep fried, juicy, bitter, salty, tasteless, endearing, tempting, tasty, delicious, yummy
Child Adorable, lovely, bubbly, bonny, cute, darling, pretty, dainty, cute, cuddly, loveable, sweet, little, precious, dashing teensy
Place  Lovely, magnificent, endearing, enchanting, eye catching, picturesque, amazing, beautiful, colourful, crowded, hot, incredible, interesting, magnificent, modern, mysterious, natural, unique, tranquil, peaceful, traditional, harmonious, fresh, romantic, magical, mystical, picturesque, panoramic, uninterrupted, mountainous.
Hair Short hair, medium length hair shoulder length hair, straight hair, wavy hair, long hair, black hair, gray hair, brown hair, silky hair, curly hair, smooth hair, blond hair, dark hair, red hair, white hair, thick hair, thin hair, bold, shiny hair, neatly combed hair, dull hair, tousled hair, dishevelled hair.
Ears eyes Bat ear, button ears, cropped ears, dropped ears, blunt tipped ears, candle flamed ears, semi pricked ears, lobe ears, low set ears, tulip ears.

Dancing eyes, flashing eyes, glittering eyes, glistening eyes, hard eyes, rolling eyes, sparkling eyes, squinting eyes, twinkling eyes, dark eyes, brown eyes, blue eyes, green eyes, gray eyes, light blue eyes, dark gray eyes, grayish  blue eyes, small eyes, big eyes, bright eyes, expressive eyes, long lashed eyes.

Smile Brittle, broad, cheesy, gummy, mirthless, monalisa, sly, thin, shy, wide, sincere, seductive, sarcastic, sneering, sweet, welcoming, gracious, dazzling, lovely, loving, devilish, timid, malicious, mischievous, reluctant, beautiful, bearing, glowing.
Nose lips Nice nose, cute nose, small nose, big nose, pointing nose, flat nose, thin nose, thick nose, aquiline nose, pug nose, roman nose, flaring nose, hooded nose, delicate nose, muscular nose, broken nose.
Skin Blooming, clear, freckled, glowing, lined, spotty, waxen, wrinkled, brown, green, red, white, grey, bloodless, bronzed, fair, florid, rosy, ruddy, tanned, high color.
Expressions Absent, appealing, beatific, black, bug-eyed, curious, dark, deadpan, doleful, downcast, dreamy, expressionless, glazed, grave, haunted, meaningful, mischievous, mobile, monalisa, pained, pitying, pleading, quizzical, radiant, shamefaced, smiley, sullen, thoughtful, worried, wry
Male Handsome, clean cut man, striking, arresting, appealing-sculptured, well built, rugged, ambitious, rough-excellent, silent, inviting, engaging, innocent-fearless, likable, selective, brave, catty, cheeky, bad tempered, big headed, arrogant, bossy
Female Gorgeous, glamorous, amazing, awesome, effeminate, smart-attractive, homely, beautiful, melting, alluring, dazzling, gracious, seductive, romantic-charming, cherubic, haunting, irresistible, staggering, bewitching, curvaceous, mesmerizing, drop-dead, angelic, comely, radiant, ravishing, stunning, elegant
Dress Elegant, glamorous, gorgeous, presentable, colourful, casual wear, formal wear, expensive clothes, cheap clothes, shabby clothes, handmade clothes, designer clothes readymade clothes, cotton clothes, linen clothes, silk clothes, synthetic clothes, nylon clothes, polyester clothes, denim clothes, leather clothes
Voice Sweet, husky, melodious, mellifluous, appealing, breathy, brittle, croaky, dead, fruity, grating, high-pitched, horse, honeyed, low, modulated, monotonous, nasal, quavering, ringing, rough, silvery, sing song, smoky, strangled, strident, tight, long loss, wheezy, wobbly



1 Hi, friends. I’m Giridhar and hail from Ananthapur. My father has been engaged in sheep rearing. Besides, being a home maker, she spends most of her time in agricultural activities. I love them. They are the most important persons in my life
2 My father is highly industrious and an expert in his job. He identifies all sheep in his herd by name. He also identifies all the lambs with their mothers. He knows several herbs and barks which are used in making medicine for the sheep. He is an expert in flute. The sheep follow him just by listening to his voice/flute.
3 My mother is very intelligent and acts as the Finance Minister of our house. She has never been to school, but still calculates most the arthimatics by herself. She knows the priorities of home and manages the limited income very judiciously.
4 I have two brothers and three sisters. All of them are married. All sisters are home makers. My brothers are serving in Central Reserve Police Force, CRPF. I love them. All of them have special love for me, as I’m the youngest in the family.  They took care of me very well and they love me more than I love them.
5 We have five acres of land. We cultivate ground nut and coarse-cereals such as bajra and jower in our land. I know all the agricultural works. Whenever I go home, I work in the fields. I work faster than the labour.
6 My family is well respected in the village for our dignity and helping nature. My parents are always magnanimous in sharing the little things they have.
7 I’m working for a Multinational Company, MNC, and earning Rs.15 lakh per annum. Following the footsteps of my parents, I have been  sharing ten percent of my earnings with the poor, especially towards education, marriage and extreme medical emergencies.
8 I’m happy to share my family information to this august gathering and thank you for your patient hearing. Thank you very much.

Home work:

  1. Make a presentation on your family.




Rohan Hi, Pavani! I’m very happy to see you in this college. How is the new college? Have you got any friends?
Pavani Hi, Rohan! I’m also very happy to join the same college. I’ve taken B.Sc., I have a lot to share. First, being a year senior to me, you tell me something about your class and friends.
Rohan There are 40 students in our class. Among them, I have three close friends. I’m friendly with others also.
Pavani There are 39 students in my class. I have spoken to some of them. Surprisingly, one of them is my intermediate friend. I’m yet to make new friends.
Rohan Who is taking Telugu language classes?
Pavani Mrs. Sarvamangala. It appears that she focuses  more on her make-up rather than teaching.
Rohan Oh! She used to teach us. You are very sharp. You got the essence. You will not be benefitd from her teaching.
Pavani Who is teaches Botany?
Rohan Mr. Govinda Reddy. He is very good at Botany.
Pavani Yah! He has taken a few classes to us. It was very ineresting.
Rohan Who is your class repesentative?
Pavani I think, nobody so far. What is the role of a Class Representative (CR)?
Rohan The CR acts a bridge between and among the students and Lecturers/the Principal. He or she has to maintain the class in the absence of the  lecturer. He represents the class as a whole. He helps the administration in organising certain events such as college day, freshers day, farewell day etc.
Pavani Are you the CR of your class?
Rohan Yes. How do you know it?
Pavani It’s just a wild guess.
Rohan You are very sharp. That’s why I like you. Bye. Catch you later.
Pavani Thanks. Bye.

Home work:                      

  1. Construct a dialogue between your friend and you about your class information? [Shared by both of you]



Vikas Hi, Vinay! What a pleasant surprise! What are doing?
Vinay Hi, Vikas! Happy to see you here. I’m studying in SGS Arts College. What about you?
Vikas I’m studying in SV Arts College. I’m in my final year B.Com.
Vinay How is your college?
Vikas There won’t be much difference between yours and mine. Both the colleges are managed by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, TTD. We have a morning prayer, Sri Venkateswara Suprabhatham. The fees is very nominal.
Vinay Yah! We too have the same morning prayer. The fees is very negligible. We have very good faculty. What about your faculty?
Vikas Faculty is very good in our college also. Strikes are very frequent  in our college.
Vinay Strikes are less in our college when compared to yours. But, the reasons for the strike are very funny.
Vikas Is it so? Can you give an example?
Vinay The reason for strike on last Friday was that college gate had been rusted the college administration never bothered to get it painted.
Vikas Last Friday, Pawan Kalyan’s latest movie,  “Sardar Gabbar Singh” was released. The students would have taken the repairs to gate as a ruse, to go for the movie.
Vinay These kinds of strikes are common in our college also.
Vikas Do you have a good library in your college?
Vinay Yes. It is awsome. All kinds of books are available there. You will find books on proper subjects, fiction, literature, drama, theatre and so on. What about yours?
Vikas We do have a very big library, located next to boys hostel. It also contains innumerable collection of books on different subjects.
Vinay Who is your principal? And,  how is he like?
Vikas Our principal is Mr. Rajendra. He’s very kind and magnanimous. He moves very friendly with the students and inspire us to achieve great things in life. What about yours?
Vinay Our principal is Mrs. Indira. She is extremely a good human being. She keeps a vigil on the attendance of the lecturers and guide them to teach the students in an effective way. She not only encourages students in sports, academics, cultural activities, but also motivates us for competitive examinations.
Vikas Nice to know so many things about your college Vinay. It is time to leave. Bye.
Vinay It is my pleasure Vikas to spend time with you. Bye..


Home work:

  1. Construct a dialogue between you and your friend about your college?


  1. Situations and Templates for spoken English:


Asking for an opinion

What do you think about it?
What do you think?
What is your opinion?
What is your point of view?
What is your attitude to this problem?
Would you like to say something about it?

Giving an opinion

I think that we should consult a specialist.
In my opinion, we need a detailed plan of actions.
In my view, it’s a difficult task.
The way I see it, it might be difficult to realize at the moment.
As far as I know, it could be very expensive.
As far as I’m concerned, time is the biggest problem.
As for me, I’m not ready to speak to the boss about it.
This is a crazy idea, if you ask me.

Adding information

In addition to that, we don’t have enough people for this work.
I’d like to add that we will need new equipment for this project.
What’s more, this office is too small for all of us.
Besides, there might be travel expenses.
Also, we will need extra cash for food and other daily expenses.

Making a suggestion

I suggest getting a bank loan.
Why don’t we get a bank loan?
How about using our out-of-town laboratory for this project?
We could rent some equipment instead of buying it.
You could publish an article about the project in a local newspaper.
Wouldn’t it be a good idea to start a fund-raising campaign?
Let’s ask Rajesh for help.

Asking to explain

I’m afraid I don’t understand.
Could you explain it, please?
Would you mind explaining it in detail?
What do you mean?
Why? Why not?

Asking for clarification

I’d like to know where you are planning to sell the product.
What do you mean by saying that we don’t have enough people?
Do you mean that we should hire someone to manage the project?
Could you be more specific, please?
What are you trying to say?

Explaining and clarifying

I mean that we will have to move to a different office and hire more people.
What I am trying to say is that we don’t have enough money for this project.
What I wanted to say was that we could use volunteers.
In other words, we are not ready yet.
You misunderstood. Let me explain.

Asking for agreement

Do you agree?
What do you think?
Right? Is that right?
Wouldn’t you agree with that? / Don’t you agree with that?
You agree, don’t you?


I agree. I agree with you on this. I agree with Alexander.
I agree completely. / I couldn’t agree more.
That’s true. / That’s right.
You are right.
Of course. / Certainly. / Sure.
Exactly. Definitely.
I think so.
I suppose so.


That’s not exactly true.
I’m afraid I don’t see it that way.
Not really.
I’m sorry, but it’s not quite right.
I’m afraid I disagree.
I’m afraid I can’t agree with that.
I don’t really agree with you on that.
To tell you the truth, I have a different opinion.
Basically, I understand what you mean, but I think your conclusions are wrong.


I understand.
I see.
I see what you mean.
I see your point.
I got it.

When you don’t know the answer

I don’t know.
I really don’t know.
I’m afraid I couldn’t say.
I have no idea.
I wish I knew.
Don’t ask me.


I’m not quite sure about it.
Maybe, but I’m not sure.
I’m not sure that I agree with your argument.
I have to think about it.
I have mixed feelings about it.
Are you sure that this information is correct / accurate?


It can’t be true!
I can’t believe it.
I don’t believe it.
Are you serious?
You must be joking.


I think that it is a great idea.
It’s great! / That’s great! / Great!
It’s very good! / Very good!
It’s a good point.
You did a great job.


I don’t like this idea.
I’m against this plan.
I don’t think it will work.
It’s too expensive.
It will take too much time.
It’s too time-consuming.

Asking to repeat

I’m sorry, but could you repeat what you just said?
I’m afraid I haven’t heard what you said.
Could you repeat it, please?
Can you repeat it, please?
What did you say?
Sorry? / Beg your pardon?

Interrupting the speaker

I’m sorry to interrupt you, but could you repeat the address, please?
I’m sorry to interrupt, but there’s a telephone call for Mr. Green.
Forgive me for interrupting you, but I’d like to ask a question.
Excuse me for interrupting you, but I don’t think this information is relevant to the subject of our discussion.
I’m sorry for the interruption.



  1. Phrases for Certain Situations/occasions:
This material contains a short list of typical phrases used in certain situations. Phrases marked as “informal” may be used in informal situations.

Saying hello

Hello! How are you? – Fine, thank you. How are you?
Hello! How are you doing? – Fine, thanks. And you?
Hi! I’m glad to see you. – Hello! I’m glad to see you.
Hello! It’s nice to MEET you. – Hello! It’s nice to meet you.
Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening.

Saying good-bye

It was nice seeing you.
Keep in touch.
Take care now.
See you tomorrow.
See you.
Good night.

Holiday greetings

Happy Ugadhi! – The same to you.
Happy New Year! – The same to you.
Have a nice holiday! – The same to you.
Have a nice holiday! – You too.

Birthday greetings

Happy birthday! – Thank you.
Happy birthday to you!
Many happy returns of the day!
Love and best wishes for a happy birthday!


Congratulations! Your new book is great!
Congratulations on your new book!
I’d like to congratulate you. Your test paper is the best in the class.
My congratulations! Your results are excellent.
Let me congratulate you on your excellent results.

Wishing luck

Good luck!
Good luck to you!
Good luck with your new project!
I wish you luck in your ventures!
I wish you luck on your trip to the north. I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you.
I wish you luck and all the best.
I wish you the best of everything in your life.


I’m very sorry to hear about your nephew’s accident. Is there anything I can do to help?
Please accept my sincere sympathy in your great loss.
My deepest sympathy in your sorrow.

Saying thank you

Thank you.
Thanks. (less formal)
Thank you very much.
Thanks a lot. (less formal)
Thank you for your help.
I really appreciate it.
I really appreciate your help.
You’ve been a great help.

Responding to thanks

You are welcome.
Don’t mention it.
Any time. (informal)
That’s all right. / It’s all right.
That’s OK. / It’s OK.


I’m sorry.
I’m sorry I’m late.
I’m sorry I said it. I didn’t mean it.
Excuse me, please.
Please forgive me.
I’d like to apologize for losing your book. Please forgive me.

Responses to apologies

That’s all right. / It’s all right.
That’s OK. / It’s OK.
Don’t worry about it.
Never mind.
Don’t mention it.

Attracting attention

Excuse me!
Excuse me, (is this Maple Street?)
Excuse me, sir, (could you help me?)
Excuse me, madam, (where is the nearest post office?)
Excuse me, miss, (what time is it?)

Asking to explain

I’m afraid I don’t understand.
Could you explain it, please?
What does this word mean?
I’m afraid my English is not very good.
Could you explain what you just said, please?

Saying that you understand

I understand. / I understood.
I got it. (informal)
I see.
I see what you mean.
It’s clear now.

Saying that you don’t know

I don’t know.
I’m afraid I couldn’t say.
I have no idea.
I wish I knew.

Asking to hurry

Could you do it a little faster, please?
Please hurry up, or we’ll be late.
Hurry up!
Come on, let’s go! (informal)
Come on! (informal)
Show some speed, will you? (slang)

Asking to stop

Please stop shouting. (stop talking, crying, etc.)
Stop it, please.
Will you please stop for a minute?
Wait! / Wait a minute.
Hold it.
That will do. / That will be enough. / That’s enough.

Asking to stop because you don’t like what someone is doing

Stop it right now!
That’s enough! / Enough is enough!
Stop bothering me!
That’s it!
Cut it out! (slang)
Oh, come off it! (slang) (Stop telling me tales!)


Watch out! / Look out!
Watch out for that bus!
Watch your step.
Watch those stairs.
Watch your tongue. / Watch your mouth. / Watch your language.
Be careful.
Careful! Behind you!

Giving advice

You should read this book.
You should see a doctor.
You’d better stay in bed for a couple of days.
If I were you, I’d go to Spain.

Giving a compliment

You look great. / You look wonderful.
That’s a great suit! / What a lovely suit!
I like your new hair style.
You have a very nice house.
You speak English very well.

Responding to a compliment

Thank you.
Thank you very much.
Thank you, you are very kind.


I would like to invite you to my birthday party (to dinner; to a restaurant; to a concert).
Would you like to go to a concert tomorrow?
Let’s go for a walk in the park.
How about a walk in the park?
Why don’t we go to a concert?

Accepting an invitation

Thank you for your invitation.
Thank you. I’d love to.
I’d like that very much.
With pleasure.
That’s a great idea.

Declining an invitation

Thank you for the invitation, but I can’t.
I’m afraid I can’t. I have to study.
I’m sorry. I’m busy tonight (tomorrow; on Saturday).
I’d like to, but I’m busy.
I wish I could but I really can’t.
It’s not a bad idea, but maybe some other time.



  1. Expression of Feelings:

Joy, happiness

It’s great! That’s great!
It’s wonderful! That’s wonderful!
Great! Beautiful! Wonderful! Excellent! Terrific! (adjectives)
What a wonderful day!
I’m so happy!
I love it!
Oh, what a wonderful present!
That’s exactly what I wanted!
Just the thing!


It’s terrible! It’s awful!
Terrible! Awful! Horrible!
How disgusting!
I hate it!
I can’t stand it!
It was the worst party (trip, food, day, etc.) in my whole life!


It doesn’t make any difference to me.
It doesn’t matter.
It’s all the same to me.
I don’t care.
I couldn’t care less.
Suit yourself.

Approval, praise, admiration

You did a great job!
It’s great! It’s wonderful!
That’s great! I’m so proud of you.
Well done!
You did it!
That’s my boy! That’s my girl!

Complaining, annoyance, disapproval

I wish you wouldn’t take my books without permission.
I thought I told you not to smoke in this room.
I thought I asked you to be here by nine o’clock.
How many times do I have to tell you to turn off the light when you leave?
Oh, how could you?
You should be ashamed of yourself.
Shame on you!

When someone is annoying you

Leave me alone!
Mind your own business, will you?
Stop bothering me!
Lay off! (slang)
Get lost! (slang)

Annoyance, resentment, anger

Why on earth should I do it?
Who (the hell) do you think you are?
How dare you!
For goodness’ sake! For heaven’s sake!
Good gracious! My goodness!
Oh God! Oh my!
Damn! Damn it! Oh hell!
That’s it! That does it!

Asking not to get angry

Don’t get upset.
Calm down.
Take it easy.
Don’t get mad!
Cool it. (slang)

Asking not to worry

Don’t worry about it.
Don’t worry. Everything will be all right.
Calm down.
Take it easy.

Disappointment, complaining about life

I feel so disappointed.
Just my luck.
What a day! What a life!
Life is hard. Life is unfair.
That’s life. What can you do?
Oh well. That’s the way it goes.
So much for (my hopes of getting a promotion at work).


I’m sorry to hear that.
I know how you feel.
That’s too bad.
Bad luck. / Hard luck.
Oh dear!


Cheer up!
Everything will be all right!
It’s not the end of the world!
Don’t give up. Hang in there.
Don’t worry. You’ll be all right.

Surprise, disbelief

Oh really?
Is that so?
That’s amazing!
That’s incredible!
I’m really surprised (that he said such a thing).
No kidding? Are you serious?
You must be joking! You’re kidding!
I can’t believe it.
It can’t be true!

Doubt, uncertainty

I’m not (quite) sure about it.
Maybe, but I am not sure.
I’m not sure. I’m not so sure.
Well, I don’t know yet. I have to think about it.
I have mixed feelings about it.
I doubt it.

Physical pain

Ouch! It hurts!
Oh! I’ve burned my finger!
My left foot hurts.
I have a terrible headache.
I have a pain in my chest.

Interjections expressing emotions

Interjections expressing emotions are used in informal speech in informal situations. Several of such interjections have been used in the examples above.



A: How do I get to post office? / What is the best way to Bus-station? / Where is Fair Price Shop? / Is there any bank nearby? / How do I find Ajanta theatre? / Can you help me in finding Police station? / How far is the coffee house from here?

Useful Phrases:

Go straight until you reach/ turn left /turn right/ now you are in ____ street / go along the road / cross the road / take the first/ 2nd /3rd lane/ opposite to it is ___/ next to it ___/ between / at the end of the street / at the corner / in front of it / traffic lights / cross roads / junction / Bank / ATM/ School / College/ __ shop/ Medical store / Super market / Main road.

B: Now you are at the bus stand. You go straight to the main road. You take left. Go along the road. You can find Priyadarsini College at right. Again you go straight until you reach Panchayat Office. There you can find branch road. You take right and go along the road you can reach Railway crossings. You go straight and very nearby you can find Andhra Bank, Kakatiya School and  SBI  ATM  at right and then cross roads. You turn left and go along the road. Now you are in Prakasam Street. At the end of the road you can find old bus stand. You take right turn.  At the right corner you can find a Medical shop and MPDO office at left. You go straight for a while you can find MRO office at right and next to it Sub-Registrar office. Adjacent   to it there is a Police Station.

B: Could you please tell me how can I reach Post Office?

Home work:

  1. You show the directions to the required place?




Chandra Hi Murali, how are you? You are in a very good mood, what happened?
Murali Hi Chandra, I’m fine. I’m delighted to get a mobile of my choice.
Chandra Oh! It’s very nice. What’s its brand and features?
Murali This is Asus Mobile with 16 GB in-built capacity with an extra facility of a memory card. It costs about Rs.20,000. It’s black in colour and looks very beautiful.
Chandra Really very good mobile Murali. What else are its features?
Murali It has Intel core. Its screen is very big. It has a camera with 16 megapixel.  The picture quality is awesome. Besides, the net speed is very fast and thus helps in fast delivery of the messages.
Chandra What about other features?
Murali I have copied 10 GB of my favourite songs and poems into my mobile. The sound quality is excellent. In my free time, I listen to the songs and poems. I also get All India Radio (AIR) in my mobile.
Chandra Where did you buy this?
Murali My father has gifted me this mobile. I have sent my 1st whatsapp message to my dad. I use whatsapp to send songs, videos and images to friends and relatives.
Chandra It is very interesting to know about your mobile. Anything else?
Murali It is very compact and beautiful. I’m lucky to own such a mobile.
Chandra Yes Murali. It has interesting and useful features. I want to use the Skype to speak to friends and relatives. For this purpose, I will buy similar mobile. Thanks for sharing the information.


Home work:

  1. Construct a dialogue between your friend and you describing about any article you like?




1 My favourite place is Tirupati/Tirumala in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the western side of Sheshachala range of Eastern Ghats. It is a Municipal Corporation. Due to its tropical location, it is relatively hot.
2 It is the abode of Lord Sri Venkateswara which is visited by thousands of people every day. The daily collections of the Hundi is about Rs. 3 crores
3 In Tirumala, you’ll find a serene forests with wide variety of wildlife, flowers and birds. One can reach Tirupati by road, by air and by rail. It is located just 120 km north-west of Chennai and just 130 km south-east of Banglore. It is located at a distance of 520 km from Hyderabad.
4 From Tirupati, you can reach Tirumala, by road as well as on foot. The pedestrians can use the two routes to reach Tirumala, one, from Srinivasamangapuram, starting from Srivari mettu and another, from Alipiri. Reaching Tirumala on foot is a wonderful experience.
5 Tirupati is considered one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage sites because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple besides other historical temples, and is referred to as the “Spiritual Capital of Andhra Pradesh”.
6 In Tirupati, several educational institutions are located, imparting education to several thousands of students in different disciplines. The famous colleges located in Tripathi are SV Engineering college, SV Medical Colleges, SV University, SV and SGS Arts Colleges etc.
7 The famous temples in Tripathi are Sri Kodandarama Swamy temple and Govindaraja Swamy temple. Hindus treat Tirupati as a sacred place and religious centre for their spiritual upliftment. The Tirupati laddoo is is very famous and has geographical indication, GI tag.
8 In Tirupati, you can found very good grenery and excellent parks. Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park hosts several wild animals such as giraffe, elephants, tigers, lions, bears, different kinds of birds and other animals.
9 There is a Science Centre in Tirupati. It demonstrates several scientific experiments and display several scientific objects.
10 In just few Kilometers from Tirupati, you will find an ancient fort in Chandragiri. The famous Monarch, Sri Krishna Devaraya spend his initial years in this fort.


Home work:

  1. Describe a place of your choice in your own words.
  2. Describe your village in 100 words.



  1. Conversation between two farmers
Jayaram Excuse me sir! Would you please tell me the way to the Agricultural Office?
Veeraiah Why not? Please follow me. I’m also going there.
Jayaram May I know your nice name sir?
Veeraiah Sure. I’m Veeraiah from Piler. What about you?
Jayaram Oh! Nice. I’m Jayaram from Pulicherla. Do you have any work at the agricultural office?
Veeraiah Yes sir. I would like to meet the agricultural officer and find a possible solution for the crop affected. What your purpose of coming to the agricultural office?
Jayaram I have also come for the same.
Veeraiah What crops have you grown? What happened to them? What crops have you cultivated? What happened to them?
Jayaram I have cultivated paddy and sugar cane. The leaves of paddy look burnt as if they are set ablaze. The seedlings look wilted and leaves are going yellow and dry.
Veeraiah What a coincidence? I can see the similarity between yours and mine.
Jayaram Have you found any solution for this?
Veeraiah No. I have brought some affected paddy. Let us show this to Agricultural Officer (AO) and seek his advice.
  [Both of them reached Agricultural office and met AO]
AO Tell me. What can I do for you?
Veeraiah Sir, You may kindly look at this disease affected paddy and advice us the solution for the problem.
AO Your paddy is affected by bacterial disease called “Bacterial blight”. Just spray this chemical by mixing in water @ 1:10.


                                                 Vocabulary related to Agriculture

Acres, Advances, Affect, Agrarian, Agriculture, Animals, Arable, Arid; Bacterial blight, Bison, Brawn, Breed, Bureau, Business; Capital, Cattle, Cereals, Coarse Cereals, Chemicals, chicken, Climate, Conditions, Conservation, Consumers, Cooperative, Cotton, Cows, Crops [Paddy, Sugar Cane, Red-gram, Green gram etc], Cultivation, Culture; Dairy, Dependence, Development, Disease, Diversity, Domestication, Drainage, Drought; Equipment, Erosion, Experiment, Extensive; Farm, Farm distress, Farmers, Feed, Fertile, Fertilize, Fiber, Food, Forage, Fruit trees, Fungicide, Fungus, Fur, Furrow; Gather, Graze, Ground, Grower; Harmful, Harness, Harvest, Hectare, Help, Holdings, Homestead, Horses, Husbandry, Hybrid; Ideal, Impoverished, Improvement, Industry, Insects, Insecticides, Intensive, Irrigation, Implements; Labor, Laborer, Land, Lease, Livestock, loan; Machinery, , Manure, Market price, Materials, Migrants, Milk, Moisture, Money; Nature, Nitrogen, No-till, Nutrient; Orchards, Organic, Organization, Output, Oxen; Pastoral, Pesticide, Pests, Plantation, Planter, Planting, Plough, Poultry, Produce, Productive, Products, Pulses [Red gram, Green gram, black gram etc]; Raise, Reap, Red-rot disease, Reform, Region, Regional, Resistant, Rotation; Sales, Seedlings, Sharecropper, Sheep, Skin, Slash-and-burn, Soil, Sowing, Specialize, Spurt, Sterilize, Strength, Subsistence, Sugar cane, Sunshine, Supply, Surplus; Techniques, Tenant farmer, Terrain, Territory, Till, Time, Toil, Tract, Tractor, Truck farming; Undependable, Uprooting; Variety; Water, Weather, Weed, Wool and Worker; yield.

Action points for the students:

  1. Make conversations by using the above given vocabulary
  2. The students are required to make at least 2 sentences using the each word given above. For instance, the words “pests” and “resistance” can be used to make the sentence, “The pests are developing resistance to the pesticides, owing to their excess usage”.
  3. Know the names of different kinds of cereals, coarse cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fiber crops, cash crops, plantation crops etc.


  1. Conversation about a Railway Station
Ram How far is the railway station from your house?
Sarala The station is far away from our house.
Ram Oh! How do you go to the station then?
Sarala We have to go to the station by vehicle.
Ram How big is your railway station?
Sarala The railway station in our town is very big. There are at least 10 long platforms.
Ram Are there any stalls on the platforms?
Sarala Yes. There are many stalls on the platforms. Several eatables are sold in these stalls.
Ram How many passengers travel by trains in your town?
Sarala I don’t know exact number. However, the platforms are full of passengers always.
Ram Where are the offices of the station master and booking?
Sarala The office of the station master is located on the platform number 1. Booking counters are located on the front side of the station. You’ll find ticket buyers in the queues and tickets are dispensed very fast.
Ram very interesting to know about your railway station. What about announcements on the arrival and departure of the trains?
Sarala The announcer informs the departures and arrivals of the trains in three languages. They are Telugu, Hindi and English. Digital boards also display the arrival and departure of various trains.
Ram What are the common scenes in the railway station?
Sarala The common scenes are arrival and departure of trains, boarding and disembarking of commuters, cries of the hawkers etc.
Ram In our town, people board the moving train. What about your railway station?
Sarala Here also same.
Ram Does your railway station have cargo facility?
Sarala Yes. Our station is located just 70 km from Bangalore. Farmers send their agricultural produce to the Bangalore city by trains. There are special bogeys in passenger trains and also special trains carrying only the cargo.




  1. Dialogue between two friends on Environmental Pollution and its affects
Gayathri Hello Prathima, how are you? Why do you look so worried?
Prathima You are right Gayathri. I’m somewhat worried about environmental pollution.
Gayathri Oh, yes! Our enviroment is in great danger. It has been polluted severely.
Prathima The problem of environmental pollution has become a major threat for the human race, animals and plants. What are you thiking aobut its impact?
Gayathri The impact of environmental pollution is serious. It leads to ecological imbalnce and brings about natural disaters
Prathima Absolutely! Besides, the global warming is the result of evironmental pollution. What is your idea about it?
Gayathri I agree with you. As a result, I think the flora and fauna are on the verge of exctinction.
Prathima In addition to, the ice is melting and sea level is alarmingly rising.
Gayathri Yes of course. Besides, owing to environmental pollution we have been suffering from various kinds of diseases.
Prathima Well said Gayathri. The environmental pollution is playing havoc with the low lying areas of the World. It is also destryoing the temperature sensitive corals in the Seas.
Gayathri Yes Prathima. My lecturer has told us that the rising temperature is going to reduce the crop yielding and creating food shortages.
Prathima The Dehli Government is following odd and even vehicle number system to reduce the environmental pollution.
Gayathri What does it mean?
Prathima It means on odd and even numbered vehicles are allowed to go on roads on alterate days. It would reduce the number of vehicles on the road and thus helps in controlling vehicular pollution.
Gayathri I heard about Paris Climate Summit. In the summit, it was decided by the world countries to bring down the Earth’s temperate below 2 degree celcius when compared to pre-industrial levels.
Prathima I also heard that the world countries want to promote non-renewble sources such as wind, solar and hydro powers to reduce environmental pollution.
Gayathri Ok Prathima. I have to leave. Feel happy to spend time with you.
Prathima It is my pleasure spending time with you. I learnt a lot about environmental pollution and its harmful effects on the Earth, plants, animals and humanbeings. Bye..


Vocabulary related to Environmental pollution:

Acid rain;         Carcinogen; Contamination;    Water Pollution;   Noise Pollution; Radiation Pollution;

Dumping;         Hazardous waste;              Domestic waste;     Industrial Discharges;

Vehicular exhaust;    Pollution;  Pesticide;     Pollutants;          Sewage;    Soil Pollution;  Green House Gases;  Green House Effect;          Global Warming;           Ozone depletion; Melting of Polar ice caps; Coral Bleaching; Fossil fuels;     Renewble sources of Energy; Non-renewable sources of Energy;  Smog; Sustainable Development; Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Green Cover; Ecology; Ecological balance; Recycle, Re-use, Reduce, Bio-degradable; Conservation; Wild life; Deforestation; Afforestation; Biodiversity;  Chloro Flouro Carbons; Clean Energy.



  1. Dialogue between two friends on Water Scarcity
Giri Hello Ravi, how are you? Where have you been? I have just been to your house.
Ravi Hi Giri! I’m fine. I have been to Panchayat Office to check whether wanter tanker has come or not. How are you? When did you come from Chennai?
Giri I came yesterday. My mother told me that our village  bore well has dried up and the Government is supplyig water by tankers
Ravi It is very sad. When we were kids, the total water demand of the village was met by a single well. The well was replaced by a hand pump in eighties and in nineties by a tube well. Now, the water table has gone down as deep as five hundred metres.
Giri It appears that due to severe drought, bore wells have also dried up, forcing the Panchayats to supply water through the tankers. I don’t know what is next?.
Ravi Are we not heading towards greater danger Giri? It is very interesting to note that two-thirds of the Earth is filled with water, but we don’t have enough water for our needs.
Giri Ravi, it is more interesting to note Ravi that only three per cent of the world’s water is fresh and the remaining is saline and thus, not useful for human consumption.
Ravi What are the forms of fresh water on the Earth?
Giri The fresh water is available in the form of polar ice caps, glaciers, rivers/streams and ground water.
Ravi Giri, we are really in danger. We have misused/overused ground water and this source is going to be dried up in near future. The polar ice caps are melting away due to shooting temperature. The streams and the  rivers will be dried up once polar ice caps disappear.
Giri Yes Ravi. We are heading towards irreversible loss of source of life on the Earth, i.e., water. We are required to take some corrective measures on a war footing. Otherwise, the human race will be annihilated, along with other life forms of life.
Ravi What are the measures we can take to reverse this trend?
Giri We shall save each and every drop of water, by way of rain water harvesting structures such as water harvesting pits, check dams, crop ponds etc; cultivate those crops which require very less water; use drip and sprinkler irrigation; avoid rising water intensive crops like paddy and sugar cane; stop wastage of water immedietely; develop effective technologies to reuse the domestic and industrial water and stop polluting water.
Ravi We shall create this awarness in our village. Water is the biggest asset we can accumulate for our future generations. Otherwsie, they will not be able to  live. There is no point in accumulating assets worth of crores for our kids, unless water is preserved for their usage.  Money or wealth is of no use to our future generations unless water is there to drink and live.
Giri Well said Ravi. If we follow this indiscipline, in water usage, even if we have money, there may not be water to buy in future. Let us create awareness in our village and do the needful.
Ravi Yes Giri, we will do it.


  1. Conversation between shop keeper and customer
Shop Keeper Can I help you?
Customer No, thanks. I’m just looking around/ Yes, please. Could you show me some hats, please? / Yes, please. I’d like to buy a bag/ I’d like to buy a sweater / a jacket / a pair of shoes / a pair of jeans
Customer Excuse me. Could you help me in getting a pair of pants?
Shop Keeper Yes sir. These are all latest collections of pants. Please select.
Customer I’m looking for a black leather coat. Can you help me?
Shop Keeper Sure sir. What is your size?
Customer My shirt or coat size is 42 inches/ I wear size XL clothes.
Shop Keeper Here is the coat you are looking for sir. It’s perfectly matching your taste.
Customer Would you help me in buying shoes? I wear size 11 shoes. / I wear shoes in size 11.
Shop Keeper Sorry sir. We don’t have shoes in 11 size? You can try 10 size, it may fit your legs.
Shop Keeper Do you think it fits me? I’m afraid these shoes are too small for me.
Customer I would like to buy a belt. Is it made of real leather?
Shop keeper It is pure leather from Kanpur sir. Quality is assured sir.
Customer How much does it cost?
Shop Keeper It’s Rs.1200/-
Customer Can you show me something less expensive?/Ok I will buy it.
Customer Shall I pay by credit card/cash?
Shop Keeper It is your choice sir. I’m ok with both the options
Customer I bought this shirt here yesterday and it’s torn inside. I’d like to replace it, please/ I’d like to return it, please. The balance may be adjusted against the purchases done today.
Shop Keeper Sure sir. I will do that. Thanks for patronizing us.
Customer Thank you.






  1. Conversation in an interview
Raj Kumar Good morning, Sir.
Interviewer Good morning.  Please sit down, Mr. Raj Kumar. Well, I am Krishan Murthy, the CEO of this company.
Interviewer Good to meet you too. Your CV [curriculum vitae] is very impressive. You have done well in your academics and have got through with flying colours.
Raj Kumar Thank you very much, Sir.
Interviewer Bright students like you generally proceed to foreign universities for higher Studies. How come you didn’t opt for it?
Raj Kumar First of all, my parents couldn’t afford it. Secondly, I didn’t want to as I believe Indian Institutions offer quality education and it depends on the students to make the best use of it.
Interviewer Well!  You have done B.E. in Computer Engineering and have proceeded to do MBA and specialized in marketing. Is there any particular reason for it?
Raj Kumar Well! I felt a technical degree along with Master in marketing would help me move upwards in my career.
Interviewer That is good thinking! Certainly that’s why you are here for this interview.  We are looking for a fresher with such an educational combination to take on as trainees.
Raj Kumar Thank you very much Sir. Well! May I know how long the training will be?
Interviewer No. No exam as such. But you will be assessed for your performance through   the entire training period.
Raj Kumar Sir, when will I get to know the result of this interview?
Interviewer Say, within two weeks. You see, we have scheduled a number of interviews.  For this week. You have a bright choice Mr. Raj. Best of luck!
Raj Kumar Thank you very much Sir.  You’re very kind.
Interviewer You’re welcome!



  1. Special Activities:


  1. Compeering:

Compeering is a process of acting as host or acting on behalf of the host at formal occasions and makes an introductory speech and introduce other speakers to the gathering. In simple words, compeering is anchoring a programme or an event like college day, annual day, fresher’s day, Earth day etc.

It calls for skill, grace, and eloquence. Success as a compere is not a matter of chance. Instead, careful preparation and precise execution is what makes compeering a thing of beauty. A compere can lift the mood and quality of a programme to great heights. Here are a few simple tips to do so.

  1. Be sure about all the names of people you have to mention: Know all the names of the people on the stage and important organizers of the event. Know the essence of the event that you are compeering. The names of the persons are required to be pronounced correctly. Never get the names/professions/ Qualifications of the people wrong. Do not label them different from what they wish to be presented as. Go through the bio-data of the people whom you are going to be mentioned in the compeering.
  2. Be clear about what you are supposed to do: You must know your duties as a compere. Is it to introduce them, felicitate them or simply invite them? Do the organizers expect you to hand over some memento to the Chief Guest to be given to its recipient? And so on.
  3. It is excellent if you can write down the entire script: It is advisable to jot-down the total notes you are going to speak at stage before you actually do it. This not only gives you confidence, but also gives you freedom to make last minute adjustments. You need to remember that last minute adjustments come in plenty. Type your script in large, easy to read fonts in double space. Leave a lot of margin and spaces in between to insert comments.
  4. Be lively and enthusiastic in your presentation.A compere sets the tone for the entire programme. It is your privilege to keep the momentum going. Along with the words spoken, dynamism of the compere on stage helps the audience to eagerly anticipate the segment that follows.
  5. The way you begin is important.It is the starting block from where you will start sprinting. Have a smile from your heart on your face; show confidence in the way you stand; let your movements be with grace and be loud and clear when you begin. More than this, the introduction has to set the tone for the entire event for the day.
  6. Find a few apt quotations: It would add value to your compeering if you are able to make some appropriate quotes to the occasion. If it is farewell day, you can quote some touching quotation which can connect you to the audience. For example you can say “Goodbyes are not forever. They are not the end. They simply mean I’ll miss you until we meet again!” If you have a supple sense of humour, it would further add taste to the party or event.
  7. Be careful about voice modulation and clarity.Reduce speed without letting go of enthusiasm. It needs practice. Be loud enough to be heard. You may have to put in 10% to 25% extra effort than your normal speaking to get this right.
  8. Try to make transitions smooth through comments: The comments shall be brief and to the point. Do not talk for a long. Your role is to facilitate not to dominate. You are like the salt of the earth; adding taste without really clamoring for attention.
  9. Anticipate everything to go wrong:Because many times things do wrong unexpectedly. For example, power failure while someone is singing or speaking. Then you may have to step on stage and take control of things. Be prepared to do so. And also be prepared with knowledge in advance as to what can be done as back-up to redeem the situation.
  10. Finally, it would be great if you can go and practiceyour compering on stage at the actual venue a day before the event.To sum up, if you can enjoy your performance with confidence, enthusiasm and able to connect with audience, you will do well.

Strict don’ts:

  1. Never surprise eminent people with off-the-hand announcements that they’ll speak on the topic, that too in front of a packed audience
  2. Common sense and basic courtesy should not be forgotten while compering.
  3. When introducing people, always ask how they want to be represented before the crowd.
  4. Do not overstep your functional role. You are asked to invite the speaker to share his thoughts; and not to speak on his/her topic.
  5. A compere should be able to understand what the apt remark is for the occasion. Generally, frivolous statements should be avoided. “A word aptly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver.”
  6. When a simple direct statement is apt and appropriate, do not spoil the moment by making a garland of words with all kinds of wild flowers tied together without sense or sensibility.
  7. Always strive to make the audience respect the speaker and hold him/her in high regard even with the way you gesture especially with your hands. Never let down the persons on the dias and off-the dias.




Many situations will often demand for impromptu speech.  Some important tips are given below.

  1. For any speech to be successful, you should first connect yourself to the audience. Once, you are connected to them, you will be able to deliver even un-palatable subject on them. Otherwise, your speech will go above their heads as they would not focus on your talk.
  2. Say new things which the audience don’t know. Read a lot which will give you command over new ideas. It is said that “All leaders read and leaders can’t rise without reading, either books or people”.
  3. Get used to talking in front of other people. The truth is that even the calmest of speakers still shake when they get up there. Even celebrities and stars still get nervous on live episodes. Thus it is normal to be nervous before such on-the-spot situations.
  4. Remember your audience. Always make an eye-contact with them. Not only it will allow the audience not fall asleep, but it will also make you more confident. If your eyes fall upon some distracting audience, ignore them. If you can’t look at their eyes, look at their foreheads.
  5. Always try to get the audience involved. You might throw a question once in a while or give examples and illustrations keeping in mind the kind of people sitting in the audience. Don’t mumble or sound uninterested. Try and get your audience pumped up.
  6. Try and twist your topic in case you get a topic about something that you cannot relate to, try and morph it into something that is only vaguely related, but still related enough to make sense.
  7. Incorporate humor and make people laugh. This way, they will automatically get involved. But always avoid such jokes or statements which can hurt someone’s sentiments. In general also, be careful to not say something offensive. Not only can it harm you standings in competition, it can also make you look like a bad person.
  8. If you’re facing a more serious impromptu speech, you should appear confident about yourself. Keep your back straight and eyes ahead. It will give you an air of significance and ensure that the audience pays attention to you.
  9. Body language speaks volumes. Relax when you are talking. Talk at a regular pace-don’t rush, remember to breathe. Act as if you are oozing confidence. Be passionate about whatever your topic is. You have to embrace what you’re talking about with arms wide open.
  10. When preparing, write a couple of sentences on each point or brainstorm. Also try reading lots of books on a wide variety of topics, so that you’ll have loads of examples to incorporate into speeches.
  11. Make sure there’s nothing about your appearance that could possibly embarrass you. Have a trusted friend (or better yet, a mirror) to help you.




Debate is a formal discussion on a particular topic in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward and which usually ends with a vote. In simple words, two teams or two persons take different stand on a given issue. For instance, in the Legislative assemblies, the MLAs or Ministers in Government argue in support of the bill introduced by Government and the Opposition Leader and their MLAs argue against the bill. Debates also occur in settings like classrooms and school tournaments. The debates (outside Legislative Bodies) are conducted under the supervision of a judge like person called “Moderator” [Speaker or Chairperson in Legislative bodies]. The latter anchors the debate and declares the winner/winning team based on the performance of the debating parties.


Basic debate format and terminology:

  • Debates are structured arguments or discussions. Teams alternate speeches, where they present their own arguments and refute those of the other team.
  • While debaters may use emotion, they should not yell or be rude to one another or to the audience.
  • Each side must present and prove their arguments. Affirmative teams will be arguing for a particular issue or resolution. Negative teams will be arguing against it.
  • Each side has a chance to present their own arguments, as well as to offer rebuttals to the other side’s arguments. No new arguments or evidence can be brought up during a rebuttal.
  • Some debates include cross-examinations, in which one side can question the other side. There are no limitations as to the questions that can be asked, as long as debaters are courteous.

Purpose of debate:

  • Debate removes legal inconsistencies and contradictions on an issue
  • It is a mechanism to thrash out the issue
  • It enlightens the members on the issue
  • Makes the speakers aware of the voice of the opposition and therefore leaves scope for reconciliation and improvement
  • Debate enhances the concentration of the beginners
  • It improves the personality of the participants. They can’t remain shy and still debate. They must speak up when the opposition challenges them on the issue. Contrastingly, if any participant is arrogant or become angry, his mind is unclear and inevitably, his partners would defeat him. At all times the participants need to maintain emotional balance.

Tips for the participants for doing debate effectively:

  • Read the topic of debate thoroughly and understand all the issues embedded in the topic
  • Make your own points for debate
  • Gather the facts/figures/statistical data in support of your arguments
  • Try to be as cool as possible, so that emotional balance can be maintained
  • Getting tense and losing emotional balance would completely spoil the case and the opponent will sure to win.
  • The general structure of a debate should be followed as: state your argument, then explain your argument and finally, illustrate your argument, with facts and figures.
  • You are supposed to guess the arguments of the opponents and make the points to counter them.
  • You should know that no argument can be absolutely right or wrong. It is the presentation of the facts and reasoning make the argument acceptable to the opposition or to the speaker or the examiner.
  • Know where the debate is headed before it starts and ask yourself before the round even begins, and then again when you start preparing for every speech “how am I most likely to win the debate? How are my opponents most likely to win the debate?” Your goal should always be to place yourself in your opponents’ and judges’ shoes, and then cover the flow accordingly
  • Use hand gestures and facial expressions that illustrate your argument.This way, the audience has a visual and won’t get bored. Also, practice speaking your debate in front of your friends, parents, or anyone willing to listen. If practiced in front of the mirror, you can analyze your facial expression and hand gestures.
  • Learnthe art and history of rhetoric which can help you win arguments by letting his opponents contradict themselves with their own words. Therefore, listen hard to speeches

Basis for evaluating the performance of debating parties:

  • Merit in the arguments
  • Logic in the argument
  • Cogency or convincing nature of the argument
  • Content in the form of facts, figure and case studies
  • Brevity in presentation
  • Adherence to the time limits set by the Moderator for making the argument
  • Achieving success in taking the argument to logical conclusion
  • The argument shall not fall in fallacies or proved to be wrong by opposition
  • Emotional balance and control
  • Solid evidence for the facts/figures used by the participant




In a Group Discussion (GD), you are expected to contribute meaningfully to the issue under consideration and help to arrive at a consensus. It is not a platform for you to fight and dominate. Flexibility and gelling with the group is very important. Group discussion helps to evaluate candidate’s personality. A group of participants are made to discuss on a topic or subject for a limited time and then assessed accordingly. It is a chance for you to be more vocal.

Advantages of a group discussion:

  • It helps to shed away the shyness of a candidate and brings his viewpoint amidst all.
  • It stimulates to think in a different, new way.
  • It helps the candidate in understanding his/ her own strengths and weaknesses.
  • It acts as an aid in expansion of the knowledge of the participant.
  • It helps to analyze the social or economic issues more logically.

The following behaviors are generally assessed through this method.

  • Personal Leadership
  • Result Orientation
  • Customer and Market Orientation
  • Engaging others
  • Strategic thinking
  • Intercultural sensitivity and effectiveness
  • Change Management
  • Depth in the Subject

Tips for effective Group Discussion:

The following tips should be borne in mind in order to have a successful GD:

  1. Arrive on time and dress formally. This is not a casual discussion, but one that will help you get a job by evaluating your personality. You need to look impressive, well-groomed and confident.
  2. If you have some doubts or want some clarifications on the subject/topic of the discussion, make sure to ask and clear them before the discussion begins and not after that.
  3. Always carry a pen and a notebook. This allows you to refer to what others have said already. It also helps you to jot down points or arguments which you might want to put across the GD participants at the right time.
  4. Just be yourself and do not show arrogance or aggressiveness. Body language is important, so be careful while using gestures and do not ever be aggressive. Be as natural as possible and do not imitate others. In an attempt to behave like someone else, your opinions will not be portrayed.
  5. If you are very clear about the topic and know a lot it, then grab the opportunity to speak first, i.e. start the GD with your opinion. It is a major plus and generally leaves a good impression but, again, utilize this move only if you have thorough knowledge on the subject.
  6. Maintain eye contact with team members / GD participants while putting across your points. Also keep nodding occasionally, when others speak, as it shows your receptivity towards them.
  7. Sit with a straight and confident posture and do not slouch or sit in a shabby manner. You should smile or laugh gently if a humorous situation arises.
  8. Ensure that you listen as well and appreciate what others are saying. If you do not agree with someone’s point, let them complete and then raise your objection. Do not interrupt. While raising an objection to a point kept by another speaker, back it up with a solid reason/evidence/explanation to get the point across the table.
  9. Be an active, positive and dynamic participant. Do not be over-confident. The examiner wants to hear you. So put forth your views. Try and sort out contradictions and arguments. Providing a meaningful direction to the discussion always leaves a good impression on the evaluators.
  10. Understand that the aim is not to speak often or for long periods. The aim is to speak precise and clear with your points. Do not repeat a point, or be lengthy or irrelevant. Also intervene, but not interrupt, if someone else is going on an irrelevant track. Ultimately, the discussion has to reach a conclusion and you must strive towards that.
  11. Be assertive, yet humble. You need to stick to your values and beliefs, but learn to respect the values and opinions of others too.
  12. Facilitate contribution from others. Do not just go on and on with only your opinionated view. Remember, it is a group discussion. Allow others to speak too.
  13. Think well before you speak. You are being heard and judged upon.
  14. Use quotes, facts and figures, statements, everyday life examples to express a clear chain of thoughts. Also it might leave a good impression on the examiner and help you score well.
  15. In case, someone is struggling with a word or phrase, feel free to help the participant, without condescension and with a smile. This goes on to show that you are a good team worker, who is willing to help others in time of need.


  • Interview

Interview is a process of testing your knowledge and personality. It decides your suitability to the job under consideration. It would be your endeavor to present yourself in a best possible way, so that you will be rewarded with a job of your choice. To perform better in the interview, you can follow the following procedure.

  1. Do your research: First, know about the company or organization in which you are seeking employment. Second, be thorough with the roles and responsibilities of the job under consideration. You are required to sell yourself very well in the interview. If your choice is to get a job in the company, know about its services, products, customers and competition. You must have at least some plan to improve the sales of the company products or services by your knowledge and ingenuity. If the interview is for Government job, you shall know the nature of job and challenges faced in the relevant organization.
  2. Present yourself in a best way: Depending on the industry and position, get out your best interview clothes and check them over for spots and wrinkles. Above all, dress for confidence. If you feel good, others will respond to you accordingly. Wear light coloured shirts and matching tie. Pants can be darker. Avoid silky and very dark coloured clothes for the interview.
  3. Punctuality: Never arrive late to an interview. Enter the building 10 to 15 minutes before the interview
  4. Show enthusiasm: A firmhandshake and plenty of eye contact demonstrate confidence. Speak distinctly in a confident voice, even though you may feel shaky. Maintain eye to eye contact with the members of the board. If another member asks you something while you are answering to some member, you may complete the answer and then take permission from him and turn the member who disrupted you.
  5. Be attentive and listen carefully: One of the most fascinating things given to us by God and one of the most neglected interview skills is listening. Job aspirants ready to vomit the data without understanding what is asked in the interview. First understand the query and then answer properly. If you are not able follow the question, you can politely ask “Pardon me sir or Madam”/“Pardon me sir. I’m not able to follow the question/ could you please repeat the question”. Be attentive to avoid this interruption from your side.
  6. Don’t bluff: Telling something what you don’t know may not help. Understand the question and give appropriate answer. If you don’t know the answer, tell politely “Sorry sir, I’m not able to recollect the answer/ Sorry sir, I don’t know”. There is no need to feel sorry for not knowing the things. You are not supposed to know everything under the sky. But don’t bluff. In other words, never try to answer which you are not sure or don’t know.
  7. Know the rules of the game: Meet some of your seniors or colleagues who are already in the job and know tips from them for better performance. Follow their guidelines and prepare well for the interview. Of course there is no guarantee that they will ask the questions from the areas you have read or what you know. But decent reading will promote confidence in you.
  8. Give Specific Examples: One specific example is worth 50 vague stories. Prepare your stories/reason for choosing particular job/profession, well before the date of interview. Give examples thathighlight your successes and uniqueness from your past experience. The common personal queries in the interview are “why have you chosen this field?” “Why should we select you for this job?” and “Explain your aptness to the requirement of the organization”. You shall have a cogent answer for the above queries.
  9. Confidence and common sense: Do interview with confidence. Speak loud enough to be heard by everybody in the board. Don’t fumble even if you don’t know the answer. The number of questions you had answered is not the criteria for your selection, but the number of questions you have answered with confidence and smile on the lips, is the determining factor here. Confidence gives calmness to mind and which in turn get the ideas to answer things in a better manner. The worst thing that may happen in the interview is not getting the job, hence do it smartly.
  10. General etiquettes: Sit comfortably in the chair. Never sit too back side and not on the edge of the chair. Keep the backbone strait on the chair and bent body a little to indicate that you are attentive. Hands can be moved very slightly and not like politicians do. Never raise hand above your chest while talking to the members. Don’t look backside or sideways while talking to any member. Don’t scratch your head or rub your cheeks or nose which is an indication of weakness and lack of confidence. Once your interview is done, the members will say, “You can leave”, then thank the Board and then leave the place.
















































  1. Introduction to Parts of Speech


Lord Ram [Noun], an avatar of the Supreme Protector, Vishnu, [Noun] is an all-time favorite among Hindu deities (Noun). He was blue [Adjective] in color. He [pro-noun] is considered to be a symbol of truth, of morality, [Noun] of compassion, [Noun] the ideal son, and [conjunction] the ideal king. He deserted [Main Verb] the kingdom [Noun] and went to forest, to keep the promise of his father. In the forest, his wife, Sita was [Auxiliary verb] abducted [Main Verb] by King of Sri Lanka, Ravan. Ram with [preposition] help of Hanuman found that Sita was interned [Main Verb] in Lanka. Ram built a land bridge across [Preposition] the waters of Indian Ocean [Noun] between [Preposition] India and Sri Lanka. In a fierce battle, both sides fought [Main Verb] ferociously [Adverb]. Wow! [Interjection] Ram killed the powerful [Adjective] and mighty [Adjective] Ravan in the battle.

There are eight parts of speech in English language. They are, Noun, Pro-noun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Pre-position, conjunction and Interjection.

  1. Noun is a naming word. It describes the names of persons [Ram, Hanuman etc.], places [India, Ayodya, Sri Lanka etc.] and things [bow, arrows, fan, computer, water, bees etc.]
  2. Pro-Noun is a substitute word for Noun. This is used in place of Noun. He, she, it, we, us, they, them etc.
  3. Adjective describes the qualities of Noun or Pro-Noun. It qualifies Noun or Pro-Noun. Black, white, red or kind, compassionate, cruel, bad, good, worst, tall, short, short-tempered etc.
  4. Verb is an action word. It describes the actions of Noun or Pro-Noun. Killing, playing, Singing, dancing, talking, waiting etc.
  5. Adverb, as the name indicates gives additional information on the verb. It modifies the meaning of verb or explains the way the action has been executed by the doer. Walking slowly, killing ferociously, dancing ugly, singing melodiously, working vigorously, running very fast
  6. Preposition takes a position before Noun or Pro-noun sometime before adjective. Lying between lake and road, sandwiched between two powers, building a tunnel under ground, sitting on the wall, staying above board, standing below table, quarrelling among the birds, fight between cocks etc.
  7. Conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and shows the relation between them. We know that the word junction connects two places. Take the same meaning here also. But, because, or, yet, either or, neither nor, whether
  8. Interjections express the emotions or sudden feelings or sentiments of the speaker or convey hesitation or protest.   They are usually followed by an exclamation mark. Oops, Ouch, Wow, Hmm. Yeah, yah


  1. NOUNS

Chittoor, Ananthapuramu and Kurnool are towns in Andhra Pradesh. They are district headquarters. They are located on our way towards Hyderabad. They have become popular in the year 2015 for various reasons. They have banks, theatres, and many shops. People who have lived here all their lives speak with a characteristic accent which other parts of Andhra may hardly understand.

[All the highlighted words in the above paragraph are Nouns]

  • Noun is a naming word
  • It describes the names of persons, places or things.

Types of Nouns

Sl.No Type of Nouns Examples
1 Proper Nouns Ram, Shankar, Chennai, India etc.
2 Common Nouns Pen, Man, River, Book, Country etc.
3 Collective Nouns Flock, Team, Class, Army, Bunch etc.
4 Material Nouns Gold, Silver, Wood, Sand, Mutton etc.


Action points for the participants:

  1. They shall know different types of nouns and their usage
  2. Know at least five examples for each noun which are not covered in the class room
  3. Learn at least 10 new words (vocabulary) which are related to nouns.


  • Pro-Noun is used in place of Noun.
  • It is substitutes the Noun.

It was a fine day, so I decided to go for a walk. I phoned Jyothi and asked her if she would like to come with me. We met at the park gate.  Two of our friends walked past. Jyothi invited them to join us, but they were busy. “See you at school tomorrow,” I said.

[All the highlighted words in the above paragraph are Nouns]

Action points for the participants:

  1. They shall know different types of Pro-nouns and their usage
  2. They have to make sentences using different kinds of pronouns and tell some stories or passages using pronouns.
  3. Learn at least 10 new words (vocabulary).


  1. Adjective

Adjectives are words that are used to describe (what kind of?) nouns and pronouns and to quantify (how much of?) and identify (which one?) them. In a nutshell, Adjectives are what define nouns and give them characteristics to differentiate them from other nouns. For example: He was wearing a blue shirt. Here ‘blue’ is an adjective as it is describing the noun ‘shirt’ by answering the question ‘what kind of shirt?’  There are seven rooms in the house.

Here ‘Seven’ is also an adjective as it’s telling the quantity/the number of the noun ‘rooms’, answering the question ‘how many rooms?’.

There are different types of adjectives based upon their effect on a noun and what do they tell about the noun. There are five categories of adjectives which are described in the table below.

  Type of the Adjective Examples
1 Adjectives of Quality Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc.
2 Adjectives of Quantity All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc.
3 Adjectives of Number One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. [Cardinals]

First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. [ Ordinals]

4 Demonstrative Adjectives This, That, These and Those
5 Interrogative Adjectives What, where, which, whose etc.


Vocabulary related to Adjectives

Abundant Damaged Impolite Selfish
Accurate Dangerous Important Serious
Addicted Dark Impossible Sharp
Adorable Deep Innocent Shiny
Adventurous Defective Intelligent Shocking
Afraid Delicate Interesting Short
Aggressive Delicious Jealous Shy
Alcoholic Depressed Jolly Silly
Alert Determined Juicy Sincere
Aloof Different Juvenile Skinny
Ambitious Dirty Kind Slim
Ancient Disgusting Large Slow
Angry Dry Legal Small
Animated Dusty Light Soft
Annoying Early Literate Spicy
Anxious Educated Little Spiritual
Arrogant Efficient Lively Splendid
Ashamed Encouraging Lonely Strong
Attractive Enthusiastic Loud Successful
Auspicious Excellent Lovely Sweet
Awesome Exciting Lucky Talented
Awful Expensive Macho Tall
Bad Fabulous Magical Tasty
Bashful Fair Magnificent Tense
Beautiful Faithful Massive Terrible
Belligerent Famous Mature Terrific
Beneficial Fancy Mean Thick
Best Fantastic Messy Thin
Big Fast Modern Tiny
Bitter Fearful Narrow Ugly
Bizarre Fearless Nasty Unique
Black Fertile Naughty Untidy
Blue Filthy Nervous Upset
Boring Foolish New Victorious
Brainy Forgetful Noisy Violent
Bright Friendly Nutritious Vulgar
Broad Funny Obedient Warm
Broken Gentle Obese Weak
Busy Glamorous Obnoxious Wealthy
Calm Glorious Old Wide
Capable Gorgeous Overconfident Wise
Careful Graceful Peaceful Witty
Careless Grateful Pink Wonderful
Caring Great Polite Worried
Cautious Greedy Poor Young
Charming Green Powerful Youthful
Cheap Handsome Precious Zealous
Cheerful Happy Pretty  
Chubby Harsh Proud  
Clean Healthy Quick  
Clever Heavy Quiet  
Clumsy Helpful Rapid  
Cold Hilarious Rare  
Colorful Historical Red  
Comfortable Horrible Remarkable  
Concerned Hot Responsible  
Confused Huge Rich  
Crowded Humorous Romantic  
Cruel Hungry Royal  
Curious Ignorant Rude  
Curly Illegal Scintillating  
Cute Imaginary Secretive  


Action Points:

  1. Know the meaning of all the above words
  2. Make at least two sentences by using the above words



The words “a”, “an”, and “the” are special adjectives called articles. They are two type of articles- Indefinite and Definite Articles

Indefinite Articles—a, an
“An” is used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound. Eg. an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange

“A” is used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u). Eg: a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book

  1. Definite Article—“the”:
    Can be used before singular and plural, count and non-count nouns

Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context:

  • Please close the door.
  • I like the clothes you gave me.

Used to indicate a noun that is unique:

  • Praise the Lord!
  • The Columbia River is near here.

Used to designate a natural phenomenon:

  • The nights get shorter in the summer.
  • The wind is blowing so hard.

Used to refer to a time period:

  • I was very naïve in the past.
  • This song was very popular in the 1980s.

Used to indicate all the members of a family:

  • I invited the Bakers for dinner.
  • This medicine was invented by the Smiths.


  • Verb is an “action word”
  • It describes the action of “doer” [Kartha in Telugu] or Noun or Pro-Noun.

Types of Verbs

Sl.no Type of the Verb Examples
1 Main Verbs


Take, Give, Beat, Travel, work , carry, Learn, love, play, publish, fly, drink, plough, bite, swim, write etc.
2 Auxiliary Verbs Be & its forms:                     Am, is/was & are/were
    Do &its forms:                     Do, Does & Did
    Have and its forms:             Have, Has & Had
3 Modal Verbs













Tomorrow is Sports Day, and the school grounds are being prepared for the event. I am taking part in the five races. A famous athlete has been invited to present the prizes. I hope the weather will be fine. Last year it was wet, and by the end of the day we were all very muddy.

Uses: BE

1.Be is  used to express the existence of someone or something.

Eg: Raju is there at home.

  1. Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express an agreement.

Eg: she is to marry him.

  1. Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express an arrangement.

Eg: They are to play cricket.

  1. Be is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a command.

Eg: you are to repay my money.

  1. Be is used to express some advice.

Eg: Be polite with others.

  1. Be is used to express a request.

Eg: Please, be with me.

  1. Be is used to form Present Continuous Tense.

Eg: I am typing something.

  1. Be is used to form Past Continuous Tense.

Eg: She was working in Delhi.

  1. Be is used to form Passive Voice.

Eg: English is used widely.


Uses : DO

1.Do is used to form emphatic sentences.

Eg: I do speak in English.

  1. Do is used to form interrogative Sentences.

Eg: Do you go there?

  1. Do is used to form negative sentences.

Eg: I don’t like coffee.

  1. Do is used to form negative interrogative sentences.

Eg: Do you not like coffee?

  1. Do is also used in short answers.

Eg: Do you understand Telugu? Yes, I do.

  1. Do is also used as a substitute for some other verbs.


44.3 Have and its forms

Uses: HAVE

  1. Have is used to express possession when used as an ordinary verb.

Eg: I have a book.

  1. Have is used to mean ‘to et’, ‘to drink’ etc, when used as an ordinary verb.

Eg: I have coffee at 7:00 a.m.

  1. Have is used to form present perfect tense.

Eg: I have seen a movie.

  1. Have is used to form past perfect tense.

Eg: They had completed the project work when we went there.

  1. Have is used to form present perfect continuous tense.

Eg: We have been learning English for 10 days.

  1. Have is used to form past perfect continuous tense.

Eg: I had been reading a book when they came.

  1. Have is used to form interrogative sentences.

Eg: Have you seen any movie?

  1. Have is used to form negative sentences.

Eg: I have not seen him.

  1. Have is used to form negative interrogative sentences.

Eg: Have you not met here?

  1. Have is used in perfect tenses to form Passive voice.
  2. Have is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a practical necessity.

Eg: You have to work smart to earn money.

  1. Have is used with ‘to’ infinitive to express a command.

Eg: You have to attend all the classes.



The verbs that are used to express various moods or mental attitudes are called Modal auxiliaries.


Uses: CAN

  1. Can is used to express the ability of doer.

Ex: I can speak in English.

  1. Can is used when we request someone for something.

Ex: Can you please, help me?

  1. Can is used when we take permission from someone to do something.

Ex: Can I speak in Hindi?

  1. Can is used when we give permission to someone to do something.

Ex: You can ask any doubt.

  1. Can is used when we talk about possibility.

Eg: Anybody can learn English.


Uses:  COULD

  1. Could is used when we express past ability.

Ex: I could win the race.

  1. Could is used when we make a polite request.

Ex: Could you help me some money?

  1. Could is used when we take permission in the more formal way.

Ex: Could I use your telephone?


  1. Could is used when we express possibility.

Ex: If I were a millionaire, I could help them.

  1. Could is used in indirect speech.

Ex: She said that she could speak in English.

Uses: MAY

1.May is used when we express uncertainty or possibility.

Ex: I may become a Lawyer.

2.May is used when we express a wish.

Ex: May God bless you.

  1. May is used when we make a polite request.

Ex: May I ask a question?

  1. May is used when we give permission.

Ex: You may go anywhere.

  1. May is used when we express a purpose.

Ex: Learn that you may get a job.


Uses:  MIGHT

  1. Might is used to express less possibility.

Ex: It might rain today.

  1. Might is used when we seek permission.

Ex: Might I ask a question?

  1. Might is used in indirect speech.

Ex: She said that her friend might support her.


  1. Might is used when we express a gentle reproach.

Ex: You might spend the money carefully.



  1. Shall is used to express prediction.

Ex: I shall attend the program tomorrow.

  1. Shall is used to express a command.

Ex: You shall pay fine for coming late.

  1. Shall is used to express a promise.

Ex: I shall help you.

  1. Shall is used to express a threat.

EX; You shall get punishment.

  1. Shall is used to express determination.

Ex: You shall give the reason for your failure.

  1. Shall is used to take permission.

Ex: Shall I tell you something?

  1. Shall is used to give suggestion.

Ex: Shall we have coffee?

  1. Shall is used to express prediction.

Ex: I shall attend the program tomorrow.

  1. Shall is used to express a command.

Ex: You shall pay fine for coming late.

  1. Shall is used to express a promise.

Ex: I shall help you.

  1. Shall is used to express a threat.

EX; You shall get punishment.

  1. Shall is used to express determination.

Ex: You shall give the reason for your failure.

  1. Shall is used to take permission.

Ex: Shall I tell you something?

  1. Shall is used to give suggestion.

Ex: Shall we have coffee?


Uses: WILL

  1. Will is used to express prediction.

Ex: He will go to London next year.

  1. Will is used to express probability.

Ex: I think he will be there in Delhi by next week.

  1. Will is used to express a request.

Ex: Will you return my book?

  1. Will is used to express a characteristic habit.

Ex: She will boast of herself.

  1. Will is used to express a promise.

Ex: I will solve your problem.

  1. Will is used to express a threat.

Ex: I will teach you a lesson.

  1. Will is used to express a determination.

Ex: I will see your end.


  1. Would is used to express willingness.

Ex: I would do it for you.

  1. Would is used to express determination.

Ex: They would run the business.

  1. Would is used to express a past habit.

Ex: He would watch many movies.

  1. Would is used to express improbable condition.

Ex: If I were rich, I would help the poor.

5.Would is used to express a wish.

Ex: I would like to make many friends.

  1. Would is used to express an intension.

Ex: I wish I would become an I.A.S. officer.

  1. Would is used to make a polite request.

Ex: Would you wait for a while?

  1. Would rather is used to express a choice.

Ex: He would rather die than live with her.



  1. Should is used to express advice.

Ex: You should take care of your health.

  1. Should is used to express duty.

Ex: We should pay taxes.


  1. Should is used to express obligation.

Ex: The rich should help the poor.

  1. Should is used to express a purpose.

Ex: Run fast lest you should miss the bus.

  1. Should is used to express improbable condition.

Ex: If I were you, I should beat him.

Run fast lest you should miss the bus.

  1. Should is used to express improbable condition.

Ex: If I were you, I should beat him.


Uses: MUST

  1. Must is used to express duty.

Ex: we must follow traffic rules.

  1. Must is used to express obligation.

Ex: We must attend interviews.

  1. Must is used to express necessity.

Eg: We must take some food every day.

  1. Must is used to express strong determination.

Eg: We must speak in English.


Uses: NEED

  1. Need is used to express requirement when used as a main ver.

Ex: I need some money.


  1. Need is used to express necessity when used as an auxiliary verb.

Ex: Need I buy this book?

  1. Need is used to express necessity when used with ‘to’ infinitive.

Ex: Do you need to read many books?


Uses: DARE

  1. Dare is used to express the courage of doer when used as an auxiliary verb.

Ex: I dare not question you anything.

  1. Dare is used to express the courage of doer when used with to infinitive.


  1. Ought to is used to express moral obligation.

Ex: We ought to help the poor.

  1. Ought to is used to express duty.

Ex: We ought to cooperate with others.

  1. Ought to is used to express advice.

Ex: You ought to work hard to succeed in life.

  1. Ought to is used to express necessity.

Ex: We ought to prepare everything for a picnic.


  1. Used to is express past habitual actions.

Ex: I used to sing songs.

  1. Used to is used to express the existence of someone of something in past.

Ex: There used to be a famous person in my village.

Action Points:

  1. Make at least three sentences by using each and every auxiliary and model verb.


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle 3rd Person Singular Present Participle / Gerund
Abide Abode/Abided Abode/Abided Abides Abiding
Alight Alit/Alighted Alit/Alighted Alights Alighting
Arise Arose Arisen Arises Arising
Awake Awoke Awoken Awakes Awaking
Be Was/Were Been Is Being
Bear Bore Born/Borne Bears Bearing
Beat Beat Beaten Beats Beating
Become Became Become Becomes Becoming
Begin Began Begun Begins Beginning
Behold Beheld Beheld Beholds Beholding
Bend Bent Bent Bends Bending
Bet Bet Bet Bets Betting
Bid Bade Bidden Bids Bidding
Bid Bid Bid Bids Bidding
Bind Bound Bound Binds Binding
Bite Bit Bitten Bites Biting
Bleed Bled Bled Bleeds Bleeding
Blow Blew Blown Blows Blowing
Break Broke Broken Breaks Breaking
Breed Bred Bred Breeds Breeding
Bring Brought Brought Brings Bringing
Broadcast Broadcast/Broadcasted Broadcast/Broadcasted Broadcasts Broadcasting
Build Built Built Builds Building
Burn Burnt/Burned Burnt/Burned Burns Burning
Burst Burst Burst Bursts Bursting
Bust Bust Bust Busts Busting
Buy Bought Bought Buys Buying
Cast Cast Cast Casts Casting
Catch Caught Caught Catches Catching
Choose Chose Chosen Chooses Choosing
Clap Clapped/Clapt Clapped/Clapt Claps Clapping
Cling Clung Clung Clings Clinging
Clothe Clad/Clothed Clad/Clothed Clothes Clothing
Come Came Come Comes Coming
Cost Cost Cost Costs Costing
Creep Crept Crept Creeps Creeping
Cut Cut Cut Cuts Cutting
Dare Dared/Durst Dared Dares Daring
Deal Dealt Dealt Deals Dealing
Dig Dug Dug Digs Digging
Dive Dived/Dove Dived Dives Diving
Do Did Done Does Doing
Draw Drew Drawn Draws Drawing
Dream Dreamt/Dreamed Dreamt/Dreamed Dreams Dreaming
Drink Drank Drunk Drinks Drinking
Drive Drove Driven Drives Driving
Dwell Dwelt Dwelt Dwells Dwelling
Eat Ate Eaten Eats Eating
Fall Fell Fallen Falls Falling
Feed Fed Fed Feeds Feeding
Feel Felt Felt Feels Feeling
Fight Fought Fought Fights Fighting
Find Found Found Finds Finding
Fit Fit/Fitted Fit/Fitted Fits Fitting
Flee Fled Fled Flees Fleeing
Fling Flung Flung Flings Flinging
Fly Flew Flown Flies Flying
Forbid Forbade/Forbad Forbidden Forbids Forbidding
Forecast Forecast/Forecasted Forecast/Forecasted Forecasts Forecasting
Foresee Foresaw Foreseen Foresees Foreseeing
Foretell Foretold Foretold Foretells Foretelling
Forget Forgot Forgotten Forgets Foregetting
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgives Forgiving
Forsake Forsook Forsaken Forsakes Forsaking
Freeze Froze Frozen Freezes Freezing
Frostbite Frostbit Frostbitten Frostbites Frostbiting
Get Got Got/Gotten Gets Getting
Give Gave Given Gives Giving
Go Went Gone/Been Goes Going
Grind Ground Ground Grinds Grinding
Grow Grew Grown Grows Growing
Handwrite Handwrote Handwritten Handwrites Handwriting
Hang Hung/Hanged Hung/Hanged Hangs Hanging
Have Had Had Has Having
Hear Heard Heard Hears Hearing
Hide Hid Hidden Hides Hiding
Hit Hit Hit Hits Hitting
Hold Held Held Holds Holding
Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurts Hurting
Inlay Inlaid Inlaid Inlays Inlaying
Input Input/Inputted Input/Inputted Inputs Inputting
Interlay Interlaid Interlaid Interlays Interlaying
Keep Kept Kept Keeps Keeping
Kneel Knelt/Kneeled Knelt/Kneeled Kneels Kneeling
Knit Knit/Knitted Knit/Knitted Knits Knitting
Know Knew Known Knows Knowing
Lay Laid Laid Lays laying
Lead Led Led Leads Leading
Lean Leant/Leaned Leant/Leaned Leans Leaning
Leap Leapt/Leaped Leapt/Leaped Leaps Leaping
Learn Learnt/Learned Learnt/Learned Learns Learning
Leave Left Left Leaves Leaving
Lend Lent Lent Lends Lending
Let Let Let Lets Letting
Lie Lay Lain Lies Lying
Light Lit Lit Lights Lighting
Lose Lost Lost Loses Losing
Make Made Made Makes Making
Mean Meant Meant Means Meaning
Meet Met Met Meets Meeting
Melt Melted Molten/Melted Melts Melting
Mislead Misled Misled Misleads Misleading
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Mistakes Mistaking
Misunderstand Misunderstood Misunderstood Misunderstands Misunderstanding
Miswed Miswed/Miswedded Miswed/Miswedded Misweds Miswedding
Mow Mowed Mown Mows Mowing
Overdraw Overdrew Overdrawn Overdraws Overdrawing
Overhear Overheard Overheard Overhears Overhearing
Overtake Overtook Overtaken Overtakes Overtaking
Pay Paid Paid Pays Paying
Preset Preset Preset Presets Presetting
Prove Proved Proven/Proved Proves Proving
Put Put Put Puts Putting
Quit Quit Quit Quits Quitting
Re-prove Re-proved Re-proven/Re-proved Re-proves Re-proving
Read Read Read Reads Reading
Rid Rid/Ridded Rid/Ridded Rids Ridding
Ride Rode Ridden Rides Riding
Ring Rang Rung Rings Ringing
Rise Rose Risen Rises Rising
Rive Rived Riven/Rived Rives Riving
Run Ran Run Runs Running
Saw Sawed Sawn/Sawed Saws Sawing
Say Said Said Says Saying
See Saw Seen Sees Seeing
Seek Sought Sought Seeks Seeking
Sell Sold Sold Sells Selling
Send Sent Sent Sends Sending
Set Set Set Sets Setting
Sew Sewed Sewn/Sewed Sews Sewing
Shake Shook Shaken Shakes Shaking
Shave Shaved Shaven/Shaved Shaves Shaving
Shear Shore/Sheared Shorn/Sheared Shears Shearing
Shed Shed Shed Sheds Shedding
Shine Shone Shone Shines Shining
Shoe Shod Shod Shoes Shoeing
Shoot Shot Shot Shoots Shooting
Show Showed Shown Shows Showing
Shrink Shrank Shrunk Shrinks Shrinking
Shut Shut Shut Shuts Shutting
Sing Sang Sung Sings Singing
Sink Sank Sunk Sinks Sinking
Sit Sat Sat Sits Sitting
Slay Slew Slain Slays Slaying
Sleep Slept Slept Sleeps Sleeping
Slide Slid Slid/Slidden Slides Sliding
Sling Slung Slung Slings Slinging
Slink Slunk Slunk Slinks Slinking
Slit Slit Slit Slits Slitting
Smell Smelt/Smelled Smelt/Smelled Smells Smelling
Sneak Sneaked/Snuck Sneaked/Snuck Sneaks Sneaking
Soothsay Soothsaid Soothsaid Soothsays Soothsaying
Sow Sowed Sown Sows Sowing
Speak Spoke Spoken Speaks Speaking
Speed Sped/Speeded Sped/Speeded Speeds Speeding
Spell Spelt/Spelled Spelt/Spelled Spells Spelling
Spend Spent Spent Spends Spending
Spill Spilt/Spilled Spilt/Spilled Spills Spilling
Spin Span/Spun Spun Spins Spinning
Spit Spat/Spit Spat/Spit Spits Spitting
Split Split Split Splits Splitting
Spoil Spoilt/Spoiled Spoilt/Spoiled Spoils Spoiling
Spread Spread Spread Spreads Spreading
Spring Sprang Sprung Springs Springing
Stand Stood Stood Stands Standing
Steal Stole Stolen Steals Stealing
Stick Stuck Stuck Sticks Sticking
Sting Stung Stung Stings Stinging
Stink Stank Stunk Stinks Stinking
Stride Strode/Strided Stridden Strides Striding
Strike Struck Struck/Stricken Strikes Striking
String Strung Strung Strings Stringing
Strip Stript/Stripped Stript/Stripped Strips Stripping
Strive Strove Striven Strives Striving
Sublet Sublet Sublet Sublets Subletting
Sunburn Sunburned/




Sunburns Sun-burning
Swear Swore Sworn Swears Swearing
Sweat Sweat/Sweated Sweat/Sweated Sweats Sweating
Sweep Swept/Sweeped Swept/Sweeped Sweeps Sweeping
Swell Swelled Swollen Swells Swelling
Swim Swam Swum Swims Swimming
Swing Swung Swung Swings Swinging
Take Took Taken Takes Taking
Teach Taught Taught Teaches Teaching
Tear Tore Torn Tears Tearing
Tell Told Told Tells Telling
Think Thought Thought Thinks Thinking
Thrive Throve/Thrived Thriven/Thrived Thrives Thriving
Throw Threw Thrown Throws Throwing
Thrust Thrust Thrust Thrusts Thrusting
Tread Trod Trodden Treads Treading
Undergo Underwent Undergone Undergoes Undergoing
Understand Understood Understood Understands Understanding
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Undertakes Undertaking
Upsell Upsold Upsold Upsells Upselling
Upset Upset Upset Upsets Upsetting
Vex Vext/Vexed Vext/Vexed Vexes Vexing
Wake Woke Woken Wakes Waking
Wear Wore Worn Wears Wearing
Weave Wove Woven Weaves Weaving
Wed Wed/Wedded Wed/Wedded Weds Wedding
Weep Wept Wept Weeps Weeping
Wend Wended/Went Wended/Went Wends Wending
Wet Wet/Wetted Wet/Wetted Wets Wetting
Win Won Won Wins Winning
Wind Wound Wound Winds Winding
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Withdraws Withdrawing
Withhold Withheld Withheld Withholds Withholding
Withstand Withstood Withstood Withstands Withstanding
Wring Wrung Wrung Wrings Wringing
Write Wrote Written Writes Writing
Zinc Zinced/Zincked Zinced/Zincked Zincs/Zincks Zincking





Adverbs are words that are used in sentences to describe or change the meaning of a Verb or Adjective or even another Adverb. They add description to the sentence to make it more detailed and interesting. It modifies the meaning of the verb. For example: He walked slowly across the square. Here, one can see that the Adverb ‘slowly’ is describing the Verb ‘walk’ by telling that the person was walking slowly.


Types of Adverbs

  Type of adverb Examples
1 Adverb of Time Yesterday and tomorrow
2 Adverb of place there, everywhere etc.
3 Adverb of Manner Quietly, fast etc. 
4 Adverb of frequency Every day, every week, every year etc.
  Adverb of degree Almost, completely etc


Accidentally Fairly Madly Safely
Always Faithfully More Seldom
Angrily Fast Mysteriously Selfishly
Arrogantly Foolishly Naturally Seriously
Badly Fortunately Nearly Silently
Beautifully Frankly Nervously Slowly
Bitterly Generally Never Softly
Blindly Generously Obediently Sometimes
Boldly Gently Officially Soon
Bravely Gracefully Often Strictly
Briefly Happily Openly Suddenly
Busily Highly Painfully Surprisingly
Carefully Honestly Patiently Sweetly
Certainly Hopelessly Politely Terribly
Clearly Immediately Poorly Thankfully
Courageously Innocently Positively Thoughtfully
Cruelly Instantly Properly Tomorrow
Curiously Interestingly Quickly Unexpectedly
Daily Jealously Quietly Unfortunately
Delightfully Joyfully Rarely Urgently
Easily Kindly Really Usually
Enthusiastically Lazily Regularly Valiantly
Eventually Less Reluctantly Very
Exactly Loudly Repeatedly Violently
Excitedly Lovingly Rudely Well
Extremely Loyally Sadly Wisely

Action Points:

  1. Know the meaning of all the above words
  2. Make at least two sentences by using the above words




Prepositions commonly convey the following relationships: agency (by); comparison (as); direction (to, toward, through); place (at, by, on, under, above, below); possession (of); purpose (for); source (from, out of); and time (at, before, on).


The students came by bus

The students of chittoor are as good as Kurnool

Are going towards the Kondareddi fort?

Have you gone through this book?

Please give this book to Mr. Giri.

The hen is under the basket.

The spectacles are on the table

The rooms are meant for the visitors

I have received a courier/letter/appreciation from my teacher.

Allow the cat to go out of the room

I will reach Ananthapuram at 2 PM.

He may reach Pilier before noon


The pre-positions are classified as simple, compound, two word and phrasal for the purpose of convenience and understanding.

Simple pre-positions Compound prepositions Two word prepositions


























































According to

Along with

As regards

Away from

Because of

Close to

Due to

Exclusive of

From among

From behind

From under

From within

Inclusive of

Near to

Next to

Opposite to

Out of

Owning to



Phrasal pre-positions
At the back of

At the end of

At the expense of

At the risk of

By dint of

By force of

By means of

By reason of

By virtue of

By way of

For fear of

For the benefit of

For the lack of

For the love of

For the sake of

For want of

In accordance with

In addition to

In advance of

In aid of

In case of

In comparison with


In compliance with

In connection with

In consequence of

In consultation with

In contraction to

In favour of

In front of

In lieu of

In need of

In order to

In place of

In quest of

In reference to

In regard to

In search of

In spite of

Instead of

In support of

In the absence of

In the event of

In the matter of

In the presence of


In view of

On account of

On behalf of

On the basis of

Of the condition of

On the eve of

Of the grounds of

On the part of

On the point of

On the receipt of

Under the cover of

Under the eve of

Under the guidance of

Under the pretence of

Under the wings of

With a view to

With an aim to

With an eve to

With reference to

With the purpose of


Action Points:

  1. Know the meaning of all the above pre-positions /phrases
  2. Make at least two sentences by using the above pre-positions/phrases





A conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and shows the relation between them.  They are used to avoid making the text seem like bullet points and to make the text flow. E.g.

Jai saw a dog on the road. He decided to adopt the dog. Jai brought the dog home.

Jai saw a dog on the road and decided to adopt the dog, so he brought the dog home.

Here ‘and’ and ‘so’ are conjunctions which are used to join the sentences and show the relation between them.

There are seven main coordinating conjunctions which can be remembered by an easy acronym, “FANBOYS”.



  Type of conjunction Examples
1 Co-coordinating conjunctions For






Soon [ acronym “FANBOYS”]

2 Sub-ordinate conjunctions Because, Since, Although, As, Before, Once, Though  Until, Whether etc.
3 Correlative conjunctions Either/or, Neither/nor, just as/so, not only/but, whether/or

Action Points:

  1. Know the meaning of all the above words
  2. Make at least two sentences by using the above words



Interjections are small words that bear no grammatical connection with the sentences in which they are used. They express the emotions or sentiments of the speaker or convey hesitation or protest.   They are usually followed by an exclamation mark. Different types of interjections used in daily life are as under.


Interjection Meaning Use
Aah Exclamation of fear Aah! The monster’s got me!
Ahh Realization or acceptance Ahh, now I see what you mean.
Aww Something sweet or cute Aww! Just look at that kitten.
Bingo Acknowledge something as right Bingo! That’s exactly what we were looking for!
Eh Question something So that was all she said, eh?
Eww Something disgusting Eww! That movie was so gory.
Hmph To indicate displeasure Hmph. I could that for half the amount he charged.
Oh I see/ I think Oh, it’s been around a week since I saw her.
Oops Making a mistake Oops! Sorry I didn’t see those skates there.
Ouch Exclamation of pain Ouch, that hurt! Stop pinching me!
Shh An indication for silence Shh! The show is about to start.
Uh oh Showing dismay Uh oh! The teacher’s caught him.
Whew Amazement and/or relief Whew! I can’t believe we actually finished it all.
Wow Expressing surprise or admiration Wow! That’s really great news!
Yay/Yaay Congratulatory exclamation I can’t believe you’re actually coming here! Yaay!
Yeah Variant of ‘yes’ Yeah, I’d love some orange juice.
Yikes For fear or concern (not serious) Yikes, my mother’s home!
Yippee Exclamation of celebration Yippee! We won, lets head to the bar.

Action Points:

  1. Know the meaning of all the above words
  2. Make at least two sentences by using the above words



Usage It is used for daily activities, regular activities, habitual actions,

universal truths, proverbs and quotations etc.

Time Indicators daily, every day, every week, every month, every year, every

Sunday, generally, regularly, sometimes, always, often, usually, seldom, never, on Monday, hardly, ever, normally etc

Formula Rule Sub+ Verb 1 +Object

Add s/es to the verb if subject is 3rd person singular (he, she & it)   Don’t add s/es to the verb if the subject is other than 3rd person



49.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the present tense

Person Verb Object










V1 +s/es Object
persons singular plural
I I We
II You You
III He, she, it They


Change of verb based on the tense
V1 V2 V3
go went gone


  1. I go to school every day.
  2. We read newspaper daily.
  3. You watch cricket regularly.
  4. They write exams every year.
  5. He eats meat every Sunday.
  6. She sells fruits in the market usually.
  7. It barks at thieves always.
  8. I go to bed late normally.
  9. We rarely see Hindi films.

10.You never tell lies.

  1. The boys often bunk classes.
  2. My mother seldom speaks in English.

13.My sister rarely opens books at home.

  1. Our school bus generally comes late.
  2. I play games every evening.

16.We pray to God every morning.

  1. You pay school fees every year.
  2. Our parents hardly quarrels.
  3. Ravi takes coffee twice a day.
  4. Radha reads novels regularly.
  5. The Sun rises in the East.

Home work:

  1. What do I do daily?
  2. What do we do daily?
  3. What do you do daily?
  4. What do your friends do daily?
  5. What does your father do daily?
  6. What does your mother do daily?
  7. What does your pet animal do daily?







                            49.2. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (NEGATIVES)

Structure of a sentence:

Subject Do form Verb Object







V 1









V 1



Ex: 1.I don’t tell lies.

  1. We don’t watch serials on T.V.
  2. You don’t waste your time.
  3. The students don’t quarrel.
  4. My father Doesn’t speak in English.
  5. My mother doesn’t read English news paper.
  6. Our village bus doesn’t come in time.

Change positive sentences into negatives:-

  1. I get up early in the morning.

I don’t get up early in the morning.

  1. We eat meat every Sunday.

We don’t eat meat every Sunday.

  1. You go to Sai baba temple every Thursday.

You don’t go to Sai baba temple every Thursday.

  1. The farmers grow crops every year.

The business people don’t grow crops every year.

  1. My friend speaks to me on phone every day.

My friend doesn’t speak to me on phone every day.

  1. Sita writes exams every year.

Sita doesn’t write exams every year.

  1. Our school bell rings at 9am.

Our school bell doesn’t ring at 9am.

Home work:

  1. Tell me what do you do every day and what things your friend doesn’t do?
  2. Tell me what does your mother do daily and what things your father doesn’t do?


49.3. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Yes/No Questions)

Structure of a sentence:

Do form Subject Verb Object







V 1









V 1



  1. Do I tell lies?

A1:  Yes, you tell lies.

A2 : No, you don’t tell lies.

  1. Do you speak in English?

A1: Yes, I speak in English.

A2: No, I don’t speak in English.

  1. Do we visit Tirumala every year?

A1: Yes, we visit Tirumala every year.

A2: No, we don’t visit Tirumala every year.

  1. Do the boys play games every evening?

A1: Yes, they play games every evening.

A2: No, they don’t play games every evening.

  1. Does your father buy you a new dress for every birth day?

A1: Yes, my father buys me a new dress on every birth day.

A2: No, my father doesn’t buy me a new dress on every birth day.

  1. Does your mother cook special dishes every week?

A1: Yes, my mother cooks special dishes every week.

A2: No, my mother doesn’t cook special dishes every week.

  1. Does your pet dog bark at thieves?

A1: Yes, my pet dog barks at thieves.

A2: No, my pet dog doesn’t bark at thieves.

  1. Comparison activities of your friends Ravi and Anjali.

1.    Studies well.

2.    Comes to school on time.

3.    Plays games in evenings.

4.    Doesn’t help his parents.

5.    Tells always lies.

6.    Doesn’t care anybody.

7.    Speaks in English.

8.    Doesn’t watch serials on T.V.

9.    Doesn’t go to bed in time.

10. Likes sweets very much.



1.Doesn’t study well.

2. Doesn’t come in time.

3. Doesn’t play in evenings.

4. Helps her parents.

5. Doesn’t tell lies.

6. Respects everybody.

7. Doesn’t speak English.

8. Watches serials on T.V.

9. Goes to bed in time.

10. Doesn’t like sweets.

Home work:

  1. Compare activities between your father and mother?


49.4. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (‘Wh’ Questions)

Structure of a sentence:

‘Wh’ question form Do form Subject Verb Object






Do I





V 1



Does He




V 1



  Examples:       Questions                                              Answers

1)    What do I teach you?

2)    When do we write exams?

3)    Why do you come late often?

4)    Where do you buy vegetables?

5)    Whom do you like most in your class?

6)    Which subject do you feel most difficult?

7)    How do you go to school?


8)    What does Mr.Ravi sir teach us?

9)    When does your school start?

10) Why does Vani tells lies?

11) Where does your uncle live?

12) Whom does Raju love?

13) Which dress does your father buy you on your birthday?

14) How does your mother cook food?

A) You teach us English.

A) We write exams every year.

A) I get up late.

A) I buy vegetables in market.

A) Ilike most our English teacher.

A) I feel most difficult with maths.

A) I go to school on foot.


A) Mr. Ravi sir teaches us Science.

A) Our school starts at 9 AM.

A) She tells lies to hide her faults.

A) Our uncle lives in Hyderabad.

A) Raju loves Hema very much.

A) My father buys me jeans pants and T shirt.

A) My mother cooks food on gas stove.

 Home work:      

  • Make questions about your friend’s daily activities.
  • Make questions about your parents’ activities.
  • Make questions about your father’s activities.
  • Make questions about your mother’s activities.



                   49.5.  THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (Conversation)

A: It’s a dialogue between 2 friends about “Simple Present Tense”. You

are ‘B’  and I am ‘A’. Shall we start?

B: Yes, Let us.

A: Do you know anything about Simple Present Tense?

B: Yes, I know something about Simple Present Tense.

A: What for we use Simple Present Tense?

B: Simple Present Tense is used for daily activities, regular activities,

habitual actions, storytelling, proverbs and universal truths.

A: What are the time indicators for Simple Present Tense?

B: The time indicators for Simple Present Tense are daily, every day,

regularly, every week, every month, every year, every Sunday, ever,

never, often, seldom, usually, generally, every morning etc.

A: What is the structure of the sentence in Simple Present Tense?

B: It is very simple Sub+Verb1+Object.

A: Do you know the rules of Simple Present Tense?

B: Add s/es to the verb if the subject is 3rd person singulars (he, she, it).

Don’t add e/es to the verbs if the subject is other than 3rd person

Singular (I, we, you, they).

A: Ok, now I will ask you some ‘yes/no’ questions you please answer me.

B: Ok, you please ask me I will answer you.

A: Do I/we/you/they go to temple every week?

B: Yes, I/we/you/they go to temple.

No, I/we/you/they don’t go to temple.

A: Does Ravi come to school regularly?

B: Yes, Ravi comes to school regularly.

No, Ravi doesn’t come to school regularly.

A: What do I/we/you/they buy in the market?

B: I/we/you/they buy fruits and vegetables in the market.

A: How does your English Teacher teach you?

B: Our English teacher teaches us very well.

Our English teacher doesn’t teach well.

A: Very good, you have known about Simple Present Tense.

  1. B) Tell me your daily routine? A) I get up early in the morning. I brush my teeth. I take my bath. I pray to God. I have my breakfast. I go to spoken English class. I return home and take rest .I take lunch. I watch NEWS on T.V. I play games. I do my homework. I take dinner and go   to bed.


Home work:

  1. Construct a dialogue between your friend and you about simple present tense?


  1. THE PAST TENSE (Statements)
Usage Past Tense is used for already completed actions in the past
Time Indicators Last night, yesterday, 2 days ago, last week, last Sunday,                                       last month, last year, in 2009 etc.
Formula Rule Sub+ Verb 2 +Object


50.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the past with examples

Person Verb Object Examples









V 2




1. I went to cinema yesterday.

2. We bought vegetables in the market last night.

3. You sold your bicycle 2 days ago.

4. The boys won the cricket match last Sunday.

5. Ram passed his SSC exam in ‘A’ grade this year.

6. Vani sang an excellent song last month.

7. Nasrin  spoken English coaching started in 2003

50.2. Structure of a sentence in the past tense[ Negatives]

Person Do form Verb Object Examples














V 1





1. I didn’t come to class yesterday.

2. We didn’t do our home work last night.

3. You did not pay the fees last month.

4. The girls did not win the match last Sunday.

5. Kiran did not waste his time in 2012.

6. Tara did not get first rank this year.

7.Our school bus did not come today.

Home work:

  1. What did you do yesterday?
  2. What did your friend do yesterday?

50.3. The past tense (yes / no questions )

Do form Subject Verb Object ?

















V 1







Question mark


1 : Did I scold you ?

A1  : Yes,  you scolded me.

A2 : No, you didn’t scold me.

2 : Did we learn spoken English ?

A1 : Yes, we learn spoken English .

A2 : No, we didn’t learn spoken English ?

3 : Did you pay the fees yesterday ?

A1 : Yes , I paid the fees yesterday.

A2 : No, I didn,t pay the fees yesterday.

4 : Did the boys buy the water packets yesterday ?

A1 : Yes, the boys bought water packets yesterday.

A2 : No, the boys didn’t buy the water packets yesterday.

5 : Did Mohan read English news paper yesterday ?

A1 : Yes, Mohan read English news paper yesterday .

A2 : No, Mohan didn’t  read English news paper yesterday .

6 :Did Sony join Narayana college ?

A1 : Yes, Sony joined  Narayana college.

A2 : No, Sony didn’t  joined  Narayana college.

7 :Did Magadheera Film play for 100 days ?

A1 : Yes, Magadheera Film played  for 100 days .

A2 :No, Magadheera Film didn’t  played for 100 days .­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­


50.4. The Past Tense (“wh” – questions )

“Wh” form Do form Subject Verb Object Question mark






How many

How much















V 1










  1. What did I teach you in the last class?
  2. You taught us about the past tense.
  3. When did we buy provisions to our house?
  4. We bought provisions to home last week.
  5. Why didn’t you come to class yesterday?
  6. I was suffering from fever yesterday.

Home work

  1. Ask your friend why did he do something in the past?


  1. THE FUTURE TENSE (Statements)
 Usage Future Tense is used for future actions which are going to be held in future.
Time Indicators After 10 minutes, tonight, tomorrow, day after tomorrow, next week, next  Sunday, next month, next year, in 2016 etc.
Formula Rule Subject+ Shall / Will +V1+ Object.

51.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in the future tense

Person Future form Verb Object













V 1







  • I shall go to Tirumala tomorrow.
  • We shall buy fruits in the market tonight.
  • You will come to spoken English class next year.
  • The boys will go on a picnic next Sunday.
  • Charan will come to Piler next week.
  • Yojitha will write SSC exams in 2015.
  • It will rain at Piler this evening.


51.2.Structure of a sentence in the future tense [Negatives]

Person Future form Verb Object









Shall not




V 1





Will not


  • I won’t come late here onwards.
  • We won’t quarrel here after.
  • You won’t get up early if you go to bed late hours.
  • The boys won’t get first rank in public exams.
  • Nasir Khan will not lose the match if he plays.
  • Bhavana won’t appear for exams this week.
  • The price of the gold will fall down.


STATEMENTS                                                                       NEGATIVES

  • I will come to your house tomorrow. 1) I won’t come to your house tomorrow.
  • We will go to cinema tonight. 2) We will not go to cinema tonight.
  • You will get it tomorrow. 3) You won’t get it tomorrow.
  • They will think about it later.  4) They won’t think about it later.
  • Harish will learn English in one week.    5) Harish won’t learn English in one week.
  • Sandhya will meet you next Sunday.     6) Sandhya will not meet you next Sunday.
  • Fair & Lovely will enhance your beauty. 7) Fair & Lovely won’t enhance your beauty.

Home work:

1) You tell me what will you do tomorrow?

2) You tell me what your friend will do tomorrow?

3) You tell me what your mother/ father will do tomorrow?





Usage Present Continuous Tense is used for the actions which are going on at the time of we speaking
Time Indicators Now, at present, at the moment
Formula Rule Subject + am /is /are + V1 + ing + Object.


52.1. Structure of a sentence using different persons in present continuous tense

Person “Be” form Verb “Ing” form Object
I am V 1    






V 1












V 1

      ing Object


  1. I am going to temple now.
  2. We are eating mangoes now.
  3. You are speaking lies now.
  4. They are listening to music now.
  5. Jaswanth is waiting for me now.
  6. Nirupama is talking now.
  7. The bus is coming now.




Structure of a sentence in present continuous tense [Negatives]

Person “Be” form Verb “Ing” form Object
I am not V 1    




are not


V 1










is not


V 1

      ing Object


  1. I am not eating now.
  2. We are not watching T.V. now.
  3. You are not following me now.
  4. Some students are not practicing well in English.
  5. Naik is not coming late now.
  6. Fouziya is not writing at present.
  7. Our T.V. is not working/ functioning now.
Statements Negatives
I am reading English news paper now I am not reading English news paper now.
We are playing cricket now We are playing cricket now
You are watching serials on T.V. You are not watching serials on T.V.
Spoken English students are speaking English well Spoken English students are not  speaking English well
Yogesh is buying water packets now Yogesh is not buying water packets
Geethika is drinking water now Geethika is not drinking water now
It is raining now It is not raining now



1) Tell me what your family members are doing now?

2) Tell me what your classmates are doing now?

3) Tell me what the people in the market are doing now?






“Be” form Person Verb “Ing” form
Am I V 1  






V 1









V 1



Questions and positive answer Negative answers
Am I telling you lies?

Yes, you are telling lies


No, you are not telling lies.

Are we speaking in English?

Yes, we are speaking in English.



No, we are not speaking in English.

Are you going to cinema now?

Yes, I am going to cinema now


No, I am not going to cinema now

Are your classmates coming with you?

Yes, my classmates are coming with me.


No, my classmates are not coming with me.

Is Thulasiram watching TV now?

Yes, Thulasiram is watching TV now

No, Thulasiram is not watching TV now.


Is Pravallika writing verbs continuously?

Yes, Pravallika is writing verbs continuously




No, Pravallika is not writing verbs.


Is the auto coming now?

Yes, the auto is coming now.



No, the auto is not coming now.



“Wh” form Be form Person Verb “Ing” form






How many

How much

am I V 1  
are We




V 1



is He




V 1





  1. What am I telling about?
  2. You are telling about your autobiography.
  3. Where are we sitting now?
  4. We are sitting in Priyadarsini College now.
  5. Which dress are you buying now?
  6. I am buying Jeans Pants and T shirt now.
  7. Why are Thanish and Harshad Ayub weeping?
  8. Because Rajeena is scolding them
  9. Who is calling to Vinitha?
  10. Raviteja and Thirthananda Raju are calling to Vinitha now.
  11. Whom is the dog barking at?
  12. The dog is barking at Eragam Reddy now.
  13. How many pens is Ashrith buying?
  14. Ashrith is buying two pens.
  15. How much money are you spending for cosmetics?
  16. I am spending Rs.500 for cosmetics per month.

Home work

  1. Ask your friends what they are doing now?



Usage It is used for just completed actions.
Time Indicators Just now, already, yet, never, recently, before, just, for the actions time not mentioned.
Formula Rule Subject+ have/ has+ V3+ Object

53.1. Structure of a sentence in present perfect continuous tense

Subject Have and its  form Verb Object







V 3










V 3




  • I have already seen Baadsha film.
  • We have bought a new car recently.
  • You have painted the picture just now.
  • Our grandparents have presented me a watch.
  • Bharath has passed SSC in ‘A’ grade.
  • Joshna has joined KKM Goutham School in Vijayawada.
  • The train has arrived the platform No.1 just now.

      53.2. Structure of a sentence in present perfect continuous tense [Negatives]

Subject Have and its  form Verb Object





Have not


V 3








Has not


V 3






  • I have not seen that movie yet.
  • We have not received any letters from you.
  • You have not yet done your home work.
  • The boys have never faced such problems before.
  • Mallikaarjuna has not yet paid the fees.
  • Mounika has not yet gone to Kadapa.
  • The boys have not yet reached Piler.
Statements Negatives
I have finished my home work. I have not yet finished my home work.
We have purchased a new flat. We have not purchased any flat
You have insulted me You have not insulted me
They have just come. They haven’t come yet.
Netaji Reddy has written exam Netaji Reddy has not written exam.
Yoshitha has sung a song Yoshitha has not sung a song.
It has rained heavily at Piler. It has not rained at Piler.


  • Tell me what the things you have done recently are.
  • Tell me what the things you have not done are.
  • Tell me what the things your friend has done are.
  • Tell me what the things your friend has not done are.


 53.3. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Yes/No Questions)


Have and its form Subject Verb Object Question tag
Have I





V 3





Has He




V 3






  • Have I asked you anything?

A1) Yes, you have asked me something.      A2) No, you have not asked me anything.

  • Have we done any mistake?

A1) Yes, we have done mistake.                  A2) No, we have not done any mistake.

  • Have you received my phone call?

A1) Yes, I have received your phone call.   A2) No, I have not received any phone call from you.

  • Have your friends passed the exam?

A1) Yes, my friends have passed the exam.    A2) No, my friends have not passed the exam.

  • Has our English teacher come today?

A1) Yes, our English teacher has come today. A2) No, our English teacher has not come today.

  • Has your mother given you money?

A1) Yes, my mother has given me money.     A2) No, my mother has not given me any money.

  • Has the bell rung?

A1) Yes, the bell has rung.                             A2) No, the bell has not rung.


53.4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE   (Wh-Questions)

“Wh” form Have and its forms Subject Verb Object Question tag






How many

How much

Have I





V 3





Has He




V 3






Question Answer
What have I told you? You have told me not to come late.
When have you sold your bike? I have sold my bike recently
Why have you come here? We have come here to learn English
Where have you bought it? I have bought it in the super market
Who has told you this matter? Mr. Ramesh has told me.
Whom has she called? She has called to Rani.
How many marks have you got in your recent exams? I have got top marks in my recent exams
How much money has your father given you? My father has given me Rs.500


Home work:

  1. Ask your friends what they have done just now?





Note the differences between the following and make sentences to bring out the differences in their meaning clearly:

  1. discreet and discrete
    2. sink and drown
    3. advice and advise
    4. practice and practise
    5. Sympathy/sympathetic, empathy/empathetic, apathy/apathetic, pathetic
    6. amoral, immoral
    7. principle and principal
    8. stationery and stationary
    9. complement, compliment, supplement
    10. diffuse, defuse
    11. loose, lose
    12. elicit, illicit
    13. enquire/enquiry, inquire/inquiry, query
    15. ensure, insure, unsure, assure
    16. elude, allude/allusion, illude/illusion
    17. effect, affect
    18. ascent, assent, accent, ascendant, descendant, descendent, descent, decent
    19. censure, censor
    20. council, counsel, consul
    21. adapt, adopt, adept
    22. premises, premise
    23. sensual/sensuality, sensuous/sensuousness
    24. disinterested, uninterested
    25. collaborate, corroborate
    26. marital, martial
    27. congenial, congenital
    28. conscious/consciousness, conscientious/conscience, cautious/caution
    29. denote, connote
    30. migrate/migrant, emigrate/emigrant, immigrate/immigrant
    31. eminent, imminent, immanent, emanate
    32. extent, extant, extinct
    33. innervate, enervate
    34. implicate, infer, imply, deduce/deduction, induce/induction
    35. intolerable, intolerant
    36. enlightening, lightening, lightning, lighting
  2. accede, secede, recede, exceed, succeed, precede, proceed, concede, cede, intercede, supersede
  3. accession, secession, recession, succession, precession, procession, concession, cession, intercession, supersession
  4. access, recess, excess, success, precess, process, cess, abscess
  5. aspect, expect, accept, except

(+ aspectual, expectation, acceptance, exception, expectorant, exceptional, etc.)


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